Caustic Soda Flakes
caustic soda flakes
Sodium Hydroxide was discovered by Humphrey Day while in England in the year 1807. The event or experiment that was used for this discovery is unknown. For quite a few years after its discovery, it was considered an elementary substance and was called a fixed alkali (alkali is another word for base). Not much else is know about the history of Sodium Hydroxide, however, it is also known that molten sodium hydroxide was used in the discovery of Sodium.
Caustic soda is one of the common names for sodium hydroxide (NaOH), which is also known as lye. Its common name derives from its chemical identity as a sodium hydrate and because it is caustic or corrosive. In pure form, caustic soda is a waxy, white solid. It readily absorbs water and forms aqueous solutions. Commercially available caustic soda or sodium hydroxide is usually sodium hydroxide monohydrate, NaOH·H2O.
General Characteristics of Caustic Soda
caustic soda flakes
・Caustic soda is the most typical of the strong alkalis. Although there is no danger of it exploding or igniting, it reacts with various acids, such as hydrochloric acid, and is neutralized and generates considerable exothermic heat of neutralization.
・It corrodes metals, such as aluminum, tin, and zinc. During this process, it generates hydrogen, which has the potential to behave as an explosive gas.
・It is highly hygroscopic and absorbs the moisture, carbon dioxide, or sulfur dioxide in the air. It is also highly deliquescent and absorbs moisture to form an aqueous solution.
・When liquid caustic soda is diluted, it generates a considerable amount of heat of dilution. Since this rapidly generates strong heat and the resulting solution may spatter if the water is carelessly poured into it, care must be taken.
・Caustic soda easily decomposes animal fibers. Although plant fibers are also decomposed, they have a higher resistance than animal fibers. Although materials resistant to corrosion by caustic soda include stainless steel, steel-epoxy resins, and fiber-reinforced plastics, steel and rubber-lined steel are the most frequently used.
:Caustic Soda different Forms
Uses & Benefits
Sodium hydroxide is used to manufacture many everyday products, such as paper, aluminum, commercial drain, and soap and detergents.
Sodium Hydroxide in Cleaning & Disinfectant Products
Sodium hydroxide is used to manufacture soaps and a variety of detergents used in homes and commercial applications. Chlorine bleach is produced by combining chlorine and sodium hydroxide. Drain cleaners that contain sodium hydroxide convert fats and grease and it can clog pipes into soap, which dissolves in water.
Sodium Hydroxide in Pharmaceuticals & Medicine
Sodium hydroxide is used to help manufacture a variety of medicines and pharmaceutical products, from common pain relievers like aspirin to anticoagulants that can help to prevent blood clots, to cholesterol-reducing medications.
Sodium Hydroxide in the Energy Sector
In the energy sector, sodium hydroxide is used in fuel cell production. Fuel cells work like batteries to cleanly and efficiently produce electricity for a range of applications, including transportation; materials handling; and stationary, portable, and emergency backup power applications. Epoxy resins, manufactured with sodium hydroxide, are used in wind turbines.
Sodium Hydroxide in Water Treatment
Municipal water treatment facilities use sodium hydroxide to control water acidity and to help remove heavy metals from water. Sodium hydroxide is also used to produce sodium hypochlorite, a water disinfectant.
Sodium Hydroxide in Food Production
Sodium hydroxide is used in several food processing applications, such as curing foods like olives or helping to brown Bavarian-style pretzels, giving them their characteristic crunch. Sodium hydroxide is used to remove skins from tomatoes, potatoes, and other fruits and vegetables for canning and also as an ingredient in food preservatives that help prevent mold and bacteria from growing in food.
Sodium Hydroxide in Wood & Paper Products
In many paper-making processes, wood is treated with a solution containing sodium sulfide and sodium hydroxide. This helps dissolve most of the unwanted material in the wood, leaving relatively pure cellulose, which forms the basis of the paper. In the paper recycling process, sodium hydroxide is used to separate the ink from the paper fibers allowing the paper fibers to be reused again.
Sodium hydroxide is also used to refine raw materials for wood products such as cabinets and furniture and in wood bleaching and cleaning.
Sodium Hydroxide in Aluminum Ore Processing
Sodium hydroxide is used to extract alumina from naturally occurring minerals. Alumina is used to make aluminum and a variety of products including foil, cans, kitchen utensils, beer kegs, and airplane parts. In building and construction, aluminum is used in materials that enable building facades and window frames.
Sodium Hydroxide in Other Industrial Manufacturing Uses
Sodium hydroxide is used in many other industrial and manufacturing processes. It is used to manufacture rayon, spandex, explosives, epoxy resins, paints, glass, and ceramics. It is also used in the textile industry to make dyes, process cotton fabric and in laundering and bleaching, as well as in metal cleaning and processing, oxide coating, electroplating, leather manufacturing, and electrolytic extracting.
?What does sodium hydroxide react with
Dissolving in water
In water, sodium hydroxide is able to completely dissociate by breaking apart into sodium ions(Na+) and hydroxide ions (OH-). when dissolved in this way, the solution takes on a very strong alkaline medium represented by a high pH.
The aqueous solution will also feel very slippery, but it is important to avoid contact with skin since sodium hydroxide is most corrosive when dissolved in water. this is because of excess OH- ions which cause the solution to be extremely basic and caustic.
:Reactions with Acids
NaOH undergoes a neutralization when it is combined with an acid. this makes it well-suited as a pH regulator in many industries, like eater treatment.
NaOH reacts with an acid to produce water and an ionic compound.
The rest of the acid then combines with the remaining sodium ions to form the ionic compound sodium chloride (NaCl). the neutralization reaction that happens here can then be checked by phenolphthalein; a common indicator used in acid-base titrations. The reaction between sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid can be shown in the following equation:
sulphuric acid is neutralized by sodium hydroxide. this neutralization reaction produces water and an ionic compound, this time sodium sulfate.
Reaction with dissolved metals
When sodium hydroxide reacts with certain dissolved metals, it forms a solid. this reaction is commonly used to remove dissolved metals from a solution, particularly if they are toxic.
When a reaction involves transforming soluble ions into an insoluble solid it is known as a precipitation reaction. Sodium hydroxide can be used to facilitate this reaction in many transition metals, like copper sulfate (CuSo4).
Transition metals are very soluble in water and form a colored solution when dissolved, copper sulfate, for example, turns the solutions light blue. Zink, on the other hand, produces a white color.
If sodium hydroxide is introduced into an aqueous solution containing a soluble transition metal, the transition metal is displaced from its compound. this process is called a displacement reaction, and it happens because sodium is a much more reactive metal.
Once the transition metal has been displaced, and insoluble transition metal hydroxide is formed. In the case of copper sulfate, sodium hydroxide displaces the copper, and copper hydroxide (Cu (OH02)) is formed.
This reaction can be used to identify what transition metal ion exists in a solution. A light blue solid shows that there was a presence of cu2+ ions. A green solid show that there was a presence of Fe2+ ions whereas a red/brown solid suggests Fe3+ ions. Sodium hydroxide can be used with all of these compounds to bring about precipitation.
Reactions with Aluminum
Sodium hydroxide react with aluminum (Al) powder to form sodium aluminate and hydrogen (H). this was a common method used to fill airships and air balloons because of the rapid evolution of hydrogen gas it produces .it is also been proposed as a source of fuel for hydrogen-powered cars.
The reaction can be carried out in the lab by mixing the aluminum powder with a concentrated solution of NaOH in a flask. The gas produced can then be captured by placing a balloon tightly over the flask. The general equation for this reaction is:
2Al (s) + 6 Na OH(aq) →2Na3 AlO3(aq)+3H2 (g)
If attempting this experiment, it is important to take the necessary safety precautions reaction between aluminum and sodium hydroxide is extremely rapid, exothermic, and caustic. Hydrogen gas is also explosive, so immense care should be taken.
The byproduct that this reaction forms, sodium aluminate, is an important compound on its own and is commonly used as a source for aluminum hydroxide .it is also utilized in water treatment, construction technology, and the paper industries.