Sodium Benzoate Uses
sodium benzoate

what is sodium benzoate-Sodium benzoate uses
Sodium benzoate is a substance which has the chemical formula C6H5COONa. It is a widely used food pickling agent,
with an E number of E211. It is the sodium salt of benzoic acid and exists in this form when dissolved in water.
It can be produced by reacting sodium hydroxide with benzoic acid.

What Is Sodium Benzoate?

what is sodium benzoate-Sodium benzoate uses
Sodium benzoate is a preservative added to some sodas, packaged foods, and personal care products to prolong shelf life.
Some people claim that this man-made additive is harmless, while others link it to cancer and other health problems.
This article provides a detailed overview of sodium benzoate, including its uses and possible safety concerns.
Sodium benzoate is best known as a preservative used in processed foods and beverages to extend shelf life.
It’s an odorless, crystalline powder made by combining benzoic acid and sodium hydroxide.
Benzoic acid is a good preservative on its own, and combining it with sodium hydroxide helps it dissolve in products.
Sodium benzoate does not occur naturally, but benzoic acid is found in many plants, including cinnamon, cloves,
tomatoes, berries, etc. Additionally, certain bacteria produce benzoic acid when fermenting dairy products like yogurt.

Various Uses in Different Industries

Aside from its use in processed foods and beverages, it is also added to some medicines,
cosmetics, and industrial products. Here’s a closer look at its many functions.

Foods and Beverages

Sodium benzoate is the first preservative the FDA allowed in foods and still a widely used food additive.
It’s classified as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS), meaning that experts consider it safe when used
as intended It’s approved internationally as a food additive and is assigned the identifying number 211.
For example, it’s listed as E211 in European food products.
Sodium benzoate inhibits the growth of potentially harmful bacteria, mold, and other microbes in food,
thus deterring spoilage. It’s particularly effective in acidic foods.
Therefore, it’s commonly used in foods,
such as soda, bottled lemon juice, pickles, jelly, salad dressing, and other condiments.


Sodium benzoate is used as a preservative in some over-the-counter and prescription medications,
particularly in liquid medicines like cough syrup. it can be a lubricant in pill manufacturing and makes
tablets smooth, helping them break down rapidly after you swallow.Lastly, larger amounts of sodium
benzoate may be prescribed to treat elevated blood levels of ammonia.Ammonia is a byproduct of
protein breakdown, and blood levels may become dangerously high in certain medical conditions.

Other Uses

Sodium benzoate is commonly used as a preservative in cosmetics such as hair products, baby wipes, toothpaste, and
mouthwash. It also has industrial uses. One of its biggest applications is to deter corrosion, such as in coolants for car engines.

Possible Health Problems

Some people are generally leery of all chemical additives, including sodium benzoate.
Preliminary studies raise questions about its safety, but more research is needed.

Converts to a Potential Cancer Agent

A large concern over the use of sodium benzoate is its ability to convert to benzene, a known carcinogen.
Benzene can form in soda and other drinks that contain both sodium benzoate and vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
Notably, diet beverages are more prone to benzene formation, as the sugar in regular sodas and fruit drinks
may reduce its formation. Other factors, including exposure to heat and light, as well as longer storage periods,
can increase benzene levels.

Particularly, fruit-flavored diet sodas and juice drinks exceeded 5 ppb of benzene. Since then, these ten drinks have
either been reformulated to yield acceptable levels or have had sodium benzoate removed entirely. The FDA has not
published more recent product analyses but has stated that the low levels of benzene found in beverages
don’t pose a health risk.Still, long-term studies assessing the relationship between regularly consuming low levels of
benzene and cancer risk are lacking.

Other Potential Health Concerns

Preliminary studies have evaluated other possible risks of sodium benzoate, which include:
Inflammation: Animal studies suggest that sodium benzoate can activate inflammatory pathways in the body in direct proportion
to the amount consumed. This includes inflammation-promoting cancer development.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A study of college students linked ADHD with a higher intake of sodium benzoate
in beverages. The additive has also been linked to ADHD in children in some studies.

Appetite control: In a test-tube study of mouse fat cells, exposure to sodium benzoate decreased the release of leptin,
an appetite-suppressing hormone. The decrease was 49–70%, in direct proportion to the exposure.
Oxidative stress: Test-tube studies suggest that the higher the concentration of sodium benzoate, the freer radicals are created.
Free radicals can damage your cells and increase chronic disease risk.
Allergies: A small percentage of people may experience allergic reactions — such as itching and swelling — after consuming
foods or using personal care products that contain sodium benzoate. More research, particularly in people, is needed to confirm
these initial findings.

Could Have Medicinal Benefits

what is sodium benzoate-Sodium benzoate uses:In larger doses, sodium benzoate may help treat certain medical conditions.
The chemical reduces high blood levels of the waste product ammonia, such as in people with liver disease or inherited urea
cycle disorders — conditions that limit the excretion of ammonia via urine.Furthermore, scientists have identified ways by which
sodium benzoate may have medicinal effects, such as by binding unwanted compounds or affecting the activity of certain
enzymes that increase or decrease levels of other compounds).

Other potential medicinal uses of sodium benzoate that are being researched include:
Schizophrenia: In a six-week study in people with schizophrenia, 1,000 mg of sodium benzoate daily alongside standard
drug therapy reduced symptoms by 21% compared to placebo. A similar study also showed benefit.

Multiple sclerosis (MS): Animal and test-tube studies suggest that sodium benzoate may slow MS progression.
This may include stimulating myelin production, the protective nerve covering damage in MS.

Depression: In one six-week case study, a man with major depression given 500 mg of sodium benzoate daily had
a 64% improvement in symptoms.

Maple syrup urine disease: This inherited disease inhibits the breakdown of certain amino acids, making urine smell like syrup.
A study in one toddler found intravenous (IV) sodium benzoate to help in a crisis phase of the disease.
Panic disorder: When a woman with panic disorder — characterized by anxiety, abdominal pain, chest tightness, and palpitations.
it took 500 mg of sodium benzoate daily, her panic symptoms were reduced by 61%. Despite potential benefits, sodium benzoate
can have side effects, including nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.

Additionally, medicinal doses of sodium benzoate may deplete your body of the amino acid carnitine, which plays a critical role
in energy production. This may make it necessary to take a carnitine supplement.For these reasons, sodium benzoate is only given
as a prescription medication in carefully controlled doses and with ongoing monitoring.

ARAX CHEMISTRYcompany is a great manufacturer of Caustic Soda FlakesAluminum Sulfate, and Copper Sulfate 
that can offer its High-quality products.

Caustic Soda Role in Drilling Mud
Caustic Soda Role in Drilling Mud

Caustic Soda in Drilling Mud
Drilling mud(drilling Fluid), in petroleum engineering, a heavy, viscous fluid mixture. It is used in oil and gas drilling operations to carry rock cuttings to the surface. The drilling mud, by hydrostatic pressure, also helps prevent the collapse of unstable strata into the borehole, and the intrusion of water from water-bearing strata that may be encountered.

Drilling muds are traditionally based on water, either freshwater, seawater, naturally occurring brines, or prepared brines. Many muds are oil-based, using direct products of petroleum refining such as diesel oil or mineral oil as the fluid matrix. In addition, various so-called synthetic-based muds are prepared using highly refined fluid compounds that are made to more-exacting property specifications than traditional petroleum-based oils. generally, water-based muds are satisfactory for the less-demanding drilling of conventional vertical wells at medium depths. oil-based muds are better for greater depths or in directional or horizontal drilling. they place greater stress on the drilling apparatus. Synthetic-based muds were developed in response to environmental concerns over oil-based fluids, though all drilling muds are highly regulated in their composition, and in some cases, specific combinations are banned from use in certain environments.

Drilling Fluid additives

A typical water-based drilling mud contains a clay, usually bentonite, to give it enough viscosity to carry cutting chips to the surface, as well as a mineral such as barite (barium sulfate) to increase the weight of the column enough to stabilize the borehole.

Smaller quantities of hundreds of other ingredients might be added, such as caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) to increase alkalinity and decrease corrosion. salts such as potassium chloride to reduce infiltration of water from the drilling fluid into the rock formation, and various petroleum-derived drilling lubricants. Oil- and synthetic-based muds contain water, bentonite and barite for viscosity and weight, and various emulsifiers and detergents for lubricity.

Caustic Soda in Drilling Mud
Drilling mud is pumped down the hollow drill pipe to the drill bit, it exits the pipe and then is flushed back up the borehole to the surface. For economic and environmental reasons, oil- and synthetic-based muds are usually cleaned and recirculated. Larger drill cuttings are removed by passing the returned mud through one or more vibrating screens. sometimes fine cuttings are removed by passing the mud through centrifuges. Cleaned mud is blended with new mud for reuse down the borehole.

What Does Soda Ash Do?

First, it brings the PH level to the optimal range of 8.5-9.5. This PH range is the “sweet spot” for bentonite.
high PH and carbonate anion half work to precipitate out calcium and magnesium.

this is the major benefit of adding soda ash. Additionally, the elevated PH produced by soda ash will also increase the negative charge on the bentonite platelet surfaces. As a result, more water is adsorbed, the platelets swell, and are more easily dispersed into individual platelets by mixers.

Why Do I Need Soda Ash?

The answer is simple. Water makes up 95 to 99 percent of your drilling fluids, and bad water equals bad drilling fluids. If you do not check your water, you must assume it’s not good. Hard water, which is high in calcium or magnesium, disrupts the electrical stability of bentonite clay. This results in lower viscosity, lower gel strength (suspension), and poor filtration (borehole stability).

ARAX CHEMISTRY Co is a great manufacturer of Caustic Soda Flakes, Aluminum Sulfate, and Copper Sulfate that can offer its High-quality products.

Caustic Soda in Soap Making

Caustic Soda Flake for Soap Making

soap making
Soap keeps our world safe. It cleans homes and businesses, offices, and manufacturing plants_versatile, gentle, and effective, it is in many ways the essential product. Without soap, proper sanitation is nearly impossible.
Humans have made basic soaps for millennia — archaeologists have found fragments of soap recipes dating from as early as 2800 BCE. According to one legend, the word “soap” comes from ancient Rome, where animal fat unintentionally mixed with wood ash during religious ceremonies on Mount Sapo. People discovered the resulting paste was an effective cleaning agent, and they called it “sapo” in recognition of its origins.

Sodium hydroxide, also called caustic soda or lye, is a traditional ingredient for soap-making. While potassium hydroxide is more common in liquid soap-making, it is possible to produce liquid soaps using caustic soda. One of the most commonly used chemicals in the soap industry, sodium hydroxide is a strong base with a broad range of potential applications. Sodium hydroxide is a water-soluble compound that comes in pellets, granules, flakes, or powders.

Sodium hydroxide forms through the electrolysis of sodium chloride, and is a powerful alkali. When added to water, sodium hydroxide increases the pH of a substance, which makes it a valuable pH adjuster in acidic formulas.

An inorganic base, sodium hydroxide does not contain any carbon atoms, similar to water. When mixed with water, sodium hydroxide dissociates completely to just hydroxyl and sodium ions. The hydroxyl ions carry a negative charge, and the sodium ions have a positive one. This influx of ions leads to a strong exothermic reaction, which helps hydrolyze fats in the saponification process to form soaps.

Caustic soda

Sodium hydroxide is a reagent, or a substance used in a chemical reaction to produce other substances. Caustic soda causes saponification and is an essential ingredient in soap-making. When flakes or beads of sodium hydroxide get added to a liquid, it forms a lye solution. This solution, when mixed with oils or fats, will lead to a chemical reaction called saponification.

Today, most industrial soap-making takes place through a continuous process, which produces a steady stream of soap instead of small batches.
Manufacturers first split natural fats into fatty acids and glycerin, typically through a tall, vertical steel column called a hydrolyzer that uses high temperatures to break the fat into its two components.

Once separated, the fatty acids get distilled for further purification. Next, the purified fatty acids get mixed with a precisely measured amount of caustic soda. The subsequent saponification creates soap. During this stage, other chemicals may be added to increase shelf life, cleansing power, or marketability. But you can also make liquid soap with caustic soda in small batches. You can find many different recipes for making small-batch liquid soap, but the general process remains the same. 

Four Steps to Make Soap

1. You must have a type of fat — the most commonly used fats derive from plants, such as palm kernel oil, coconut oil, and olive oil. You can use one type of oil or a combination of two or three, for example, 70 percent coconut oil and 30 percent olive oil.

2. Make lye water. Mix the caustic soda with water until it dissolves. The reaction of sodium hydroxide and water is exothermic and will produce heat, so use caution during this stage of the process.

3. Combine the oils with the lye water. Once mixed, allow the soap to rest up to 24 hours.

4. After the soap has set, slowly add heat and water until the soap is smooth and at a proper liquid consistency.

By the end of the saponification process, sodium hydroxide is no longer present in the soap. it has been completely dissociated and used in the chemical reaction. Keep in mind that it is essential to weigh your ingredients instead of measuring them. The amount of lye is based on the weight of the oil, not the fluid ounces. Different oils have different densities. one cup of olive oil will not weigh the same as one cup of coconut oil. To ensure you have the right ratio, weigh your ingredients before mixing.


Caustic soda in Iran
Caustic soda in Iran

Caustic soda in Iran

Caustic soda in Iran : Caustic soda flakes 98-99% also known as sodium hydroxide (Noah)
as is an inorganic compound which is used in many different industries.
We have strong business relationship, and local contract with the leading caustic soda flakes/lye manufacturers in Iran.
The state-of-the-art facilities of the factories make us able to source high quality
caustic soda flakes with real purity which can be even used in food and
pharmaceutical industries.
With respect to our economical price directly from the manufacturers, product high quality,

professional packaging, and on-time delivery, we have already penetrated many markets such as Far East,
Middle East, Asian countries, Latin America, Turkey, Iraq, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan,
Afghanistan, Pakistan, Georgia, Syria for this product.

Caustic soda packing:

our manufactured caustic soda flake is packed in best quality laminated 25 kg polypropylene
bags with inside polyethylene layer. We can offer the bags inside 1 MT jumbo bags,

and also on 1.5 MT pallets.
For our major customers that order on no name basis, we are in position to design and print
customized packaging upon customers’ requirements based on solo partnership contracts.

Caustic soda delivery basis:

we have perfect access to all transportation routes to the globe especially CIS countries,
Middle East countries, Europe, and Africa by truck, train and vessel, and can dispatch our products
immediately to any country in the world with cost-effective rates, and deliver the goods to your final destination so that you can enjoy your purchase from our factory smoothly.

Payment term:

As there are some restrictions for Iranian banks, most of our customers asked for some solution
to be able to arrange cash – T/T payment for us outside Iran. Therefore, we tried to solve this issue.

We have partner company in Latvia the payment in cash – T/T and in AED/EUR/USD
currencies from our valuable customers around the world.

Our competence:

The economical prices directly from the manufacturers, high quality of the product as per the certified lab test of the factory,
and on-time delivery of the product are the most normal things any supplier must follow
to support its customers.
Therefore, we try hard to follow these simple but important priorities to support and be
loyal partners to our valued customers,
and also promote our markets and match ourselves with the new markets around the world.

Therefore, we invite all the traders, distributors and end-users to try us with our quality
services and competitive prices.

Caustic soda flakes Applications:

Refining alumina:

caustic soda flake is used in the refining of alumina containing more like bauxite to produce aluminum oxide.
Pulp and paper: Sodium hydroxide is an important commodity chemical for the pulp and paper industry.
Principal uses in pulp and paper production include the cooking/processing of Kraft pulps,
the extraction of lignin during the pulp bleaching sequences, and the on-site
manufacture of sodium hypochlorite.
The general pulp bleaching procedure involves a bleaching sequence during which impurities and colored matter in the pulp are oxidized and/or converted to alkali-soluble
and an extraction sequence during which the impurities are removed. Extraction stages
almost invariably use caustic soda.


caustic soda flake is used mainly for two processes in textile manufacture.
Mercerizing of fibre with sodium and hydroxide solution enables greater tensional
strength and consistent lustre. It also removes waxes and oils from fibre to make the fibre more receptive to bleaching and dying.

Detergent: caustic soda flake is also widely used in making soaps and detergents,
Sodium hydroxide was originally used for soap manufacture, but now has a wider
variety of functions.
As well as an extractor and refining agent for certain oils, sodium hydroxide is used to
produce active agents,
or builders in modern synthetic detergents.

Water treatment:
Caustic soda flake is utilized to raise the PH of water in a variety of applications.

Other applications:

Caustic soda flake is used for the desulphurization in the petrochemical industry.
Caustic soda flake is used for starch production.
Caustic soda flake is used for the manufacture of bio-diesel.
Caustic soda flake is a source of sodium ions for reactions that produce other sodium compounds.

What is soda ash?
What is soda ash?

What is soda ash?

What is soda ash? Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) called soda ash,
Soda crystals and washing soda are also known.
One of the most important industrial chemicals that is widely used
in the production of other alkali products
, Sodium salts and … are used.
Soda ash is the common name for sodium carbonate without water,
which is used industrially.
Sodium carbonate or its sodium hydroxide, in fact,
is sodium salts of carbonic acid,
which is normally in the form of Solid white.
Sodium carbonate on an industrial scale through the process of sowing
and using ammonia, limestone, and salt is produced.
One of the most important uses of sodium carbonate is in the glass industry.
Sodium carbonate has a relatively strong alkaline property and can be
extracted from the ash of many plants.

Physical and Chemical Properties of Sodium Carbonate

The melting point of sodium carbonate is 851 degrees Celsius.
This product decomposes at higher temperatures. So the boiling temperature
for this substance is not defined.
The solubility of sodium carbonate in water at 20 ° C is 215 g / l.

Physical Characteristics of carbonate

Sodium carbonate reacts with carbon dioxide and water to produce
bicarbonate sodium.
Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O → 2NaHCO3
Sodium bicarbonate produces sodium carbonate in the presence of sodium.
NaHCO3 + NaOH → Na2CO3 + H2O
The dissolution of sodium carbonate in water is a heat-reactive reaction.
For industrial applications, two types of sodium carbonate are used

• Heavy sodium carbonate
• Light Sodium Carbonate

The difference between heavy sodium carbonate and light sodium carbonate
is in density, particle size and application They are not chemically distinct.
Heavy sodium carbonate The mass density is about 1000 kg / m3 and particle
size 300-500 Micron
This kind of carbonate is often used in glass factories.
The larger particles of this kind of granule cause the absence of dust and
impurities and probability
Reduces particle flux during transport.
The density of sodium carbonate is about 500 kg / m3 and the size of sodium
carbonate’s component is about 100 microns.
Lightweight sodium carbonate is used to produce chemicals and detergents.

Application of sodium carbonate

Sodium carbonate is one of the most widely used materials in various industries.
Among the uses of sodium carbonate (soda ash), we can mention the following.

Glass manufacturing: Sodium carbonate is used in the glass industry.
The use of this material in glass can reduce the glass formation temperature
and save energy.

Production of chemicals: Sodium carbonate in the production of various chemicals
such as sodium bicarbonate, sodium Silicate, Sodium Triple Phosphate,
Sodium Dichromate, Sodium Aluminate, Sodium Cyanide. . . is used.

Paper production: In the industry, sodium carbonate paper is used as a
stabilizing agent for acidity, as well as for stripping of waste paper.

• Soap and detergent production: Its use in the production of soap and detergents
is used as alkali.

Water softening: Sodium carbonate in the ion exchange process removes
calcium and magnesium ions from the water and reduces its hardness.

• Urban Water Tanks: Soda ash, as a common additive in urban reservoirs,
is used to neutralize the acidic effect of chlorine and to increase ph.

• Home Appliance:

Sodium carbonate is used in homes as a water softener in the washing of clothes.
It resists magnesium ions and calcium in hard water and prevents the bond
formation They are used with detergent.
Without the use of sodium carbonate, an additional detergent is needed to
soak up magnesium ions and calcium Gets

• Dyeing: It is used as a bonding agent between colors and fibers.

• Food industry: As pH regulator and preservative.

• Electrolysis: As an electrolyte, it increases the rate of water decomposition.

Taxidermy: The process of removing meat from bones is used.

• Chemistry labs are used as the primary standard in titration reactions.

• Toothpaste: As a pH-enhancing agent, the flooring agent is used.

• Brick Making: As a wetting agent in the production of dough,
it reduces the amount of water used.

• Textile Industry: Used as an anti-acid agent in silk processing.

Petrochemicals and Crude Petroleum Refining: It is used as neutralizing in petrochemical processes.

• Purification of vegetable oils: acts as a free fatty acid separator.

• Smoke from smoke: In the process of sulfur removal, smoke from the flue is used.

Raw materials required for the production of sodium carbonate

The raw materials required to produce sodium carbonate by Solvay are limestone,
Normal salts and ammonia produced by the reaction of sodium carbonate below.

CaCO3 → CO2 + CaO

2NH3 + CO2 + H2O → (NH4) 2CO3

(NH4) 2CO3 + CO2 + H2O → 2NH4HCO3

NH4HCO3 + NaCl → NaHCO3 + NH4Cl

2NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O

Classification of chemicals
Classification of chemicals

Classification of chemicals

Classification of chemicals: Dangerous goods are classified and labeled
in many countries according to the United Nations system.
In this system, hazardous goods are categorized according to their hazardous properties in six classes.
These classes include nine distinct classes and a different class of materials.
The risks for each class are marked with special rhomboidal labels.
Some hazardous goods, including classes 8, 4, 1, 2 and 9, have sub-classes.
Which indicates a certain aspect of the dangers of the substance.
In some classes, subsequent categorization includes packaging groups
, which indicates the relative risk of matter inside a class
(PG-III low risk, PG-II medium risk, high-risk PGI)
Therefore, all packages, containers, and tankers carrying hazardous goods should
be labeled appropriately with the appropriate class name.
This label shows the nature of the risk using a color system and special characters,
as well as a hazard class item.

Class 1 Explosive

class 1

Includes substances that can cause explosions or pyrotechnic effects.
Production of explosives is generally limited and is subject to the relevant regulations.
The use of explosives for research needs is subject to obtaining the necessary permissions from the responsible organizations.

Explosives include 6 sub-classes:

Class 1-1 Explosives with a sudden and fearful explosion
Example: TNT Nitroglycerin, Mercury Fulminate

Class 1-2 Explosives with Risk of Throw (but not the danger of a blast of fearsome)
Example: bombs, grenades

Class 1-3 Explosive materials with a high fire hazard
Example: gunpowder, fireworks

Class 1-4 Explosives without fearsome explosion
Example: Fireworks on Toys

Classes 1-5 Explosive explosives with low explosive sensitivity
Depower like Proprietary Example: Explosive

Class 1-6 Explosive materials with very low explosive sensitivity

Class 2 gases

class 2

The hazardous goods of this class include pressure gases, liquid gases or pressure gases.

Gases include 3 sub-classes:

Class 2-1 flammable gases

Class 2-2 Non-flammable and non-toxic gases

Class 2-3 toxic gases

Toxic gases are gases that inhale them to cause death or serious health damage to humans.

Example: chlorine and ammonia.

Class 3 flammable liquids
class 3

For liquids flammable, a mixture of liquids or liquids containing solids is soluble or suspended.

Which can ignite in contact with a source of ignition, such as gasoline, thinners, paints, varnishes and flammable solvents?

It should be noted that in the older segmentation of this class, two sub-scales were divided into two sub-classes: 0-2 and 0-1.

But the new classification for subclass flammable liquids has not been taken into
consideration, but for these materials, the packaging groups (PG I, II, III) have been

PGI grade 3 – Highly flammable liquid
With an initial boiling point less than 08 ° C

Example: Di-ethyl ether, carbon disulfide

Class PG-II -3 Flammable Liquids Extremely high
With an initial boiling point greater than 08 ° C and a flash point less than
10 ° C

Like: gasoline, acetone

Class PIROGI -3 flammable liquid with flash point 10 to 92 ° C

Example: Crown, Turpentine Mineral

This group was called “subclass 2-3” in the previous division

Class 4 flammable solids

class 4

Hazardous materials in this class include materials with spontaneous combustion
potential as well as materials that can cause flammable gases in contact with water.
Also, solids (other than explosives) that immediately burn or cause fire are also classified in this class.

This class contains 3 sub-classes:

Class 4-1 flammable liquid

Materials that are easily ignited and combustible.
Example: Nitrocellulose, phosphorus, matches, and Acid Pic

Class 4-2 cylinders with spontaneous combustion potential
Example: Charcoal, cotton and white phosphorus

Class 4 – Dangerous substances in the wet state
Includes solids that create flammable gases in contact with water.
Example: aluminum phosphide and calcium carbide

Class 5 oxidizing substances

class 5

The oxidizing agent contains 2 sub-classes:

Class 5-1 Oxidizing agents (other than organic peroxides)

Like hydrogen peroxide, calcium hypochlorite (used in pools), ammonium nitrate and nitrates

Class 5-2 Organic peroxides (solid or liquid)

Examples: Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide, Benzoyl Peroxide, Di benzoyl, and Per
Acetic Acid.
Oxidizing substances are not necessarily combustible by themselves but may cause other materials to ignite.
For example, sodium peroxide in the presence of water creates a strongly exothermic reaction,
and the need for mixing with charcoal also causes spontaneous combustion.
Organic peroxides have a structure with bivalent oxygen.

These materials are thermal insecure materials and therefore may spontaneously
decompose, which can sometimes cause explosive reactions or burn quickly,
or be sensitive to impact or friction, or produce dangerous reactions with other materials

Class 6 Toxic and Infectious Substances

class 6


This class includes two sub-classes of toxic substances and infectious substances,
but toxic gases, previously classified in class 3-2, are not included in this class.

Class 6-1: Toxic substances (including liquids and toxic solids)

Toxic substances include substances that cause death or serious injury
and serious harm to humans if swallowed, inhaled or through skin contact.

Example: Sodium Cyanide (NaCN) Cyanides and Arsenic Compounds.

Class 6-2 Infectious agents

Substances are substances that are known to be infectious or possibly
pathogenic (microorganisms include bacteria, viruses, rickettsia, parasites, and fungi).
Vaccines and pathological specimens are examples of this.
The maintenance instructions, how to work and how to dispose of infectious
substances should be in accordance with the health regulations and the
mode of transportation of this group of materials subject to the provisions
of environmental protection

Class 7 radioactive substances

This class contains materials or materials that constantly emit radioactive contaminants.
More precisely, the radioactive substance is a substance with a specific activity greater than 70 KB q / kg.
The activity is specific to activity in a unit mass of a radioactive substance.
There are no sub-classes for this class, but different packing groups are considered.
Example: Radioisotopes and uranium

Class 8 corrosives

class 8
Corrosive materials are solid or liquid substances that can damage the living tissues
and equipment during contact with chemical agents.

In other words, corrosive substances are substances that, by chemical action,
cause severe damage to living tissues, equipment, and other materials.

Examples: Hydrofluoric Acid,


, and Clay Pools.

Class 9 Miscellaneous materials

class 9
This class shows the risk of miscellaneous materials that are not particularly severe
and are not classified in other classes.

Such as intense magnetic materials, aerosols, ammonium nitrate fertilizers,
and polyester granules.

Dangerous goods labels

This label represents various classes of hazardous goods and is used when
shipping these goods.

Industrial production of caustic soda
Industrial production of caustic soda

 Industrial production of caustic soda

 Industrial production of caustic soda

 Sodium Hydroxide is a solid and white substance with a melting point of 1388 ° C and

a density of 13.2.

This material usually reaches 98% or 99% purity for various uses Sodium hydroxide is

presented in four ways in terms of its appearance:

Caustic soda liquid

Sodium hydroxide liquid is Produced by Using the Hydrolysis Process of a Salt Solution,

in Petrochemicals and Liquid caustic soda production Units then will be transported by

special thanks to caustic soda flakes production units.

Caustic soda flakes

Caustic soda flakes are usually in white color and odorless material and are available at the flake.

Caustic soda pearls:

Caustic soda pearls are solid, white and similar to small snowball bullets,

which are used in more precision and finer production?

It is commonly used in pharmaceutical and textile industries with more sensitive applications

Sodium Hydroxide Powder:

This caustic soda or sodium hydroxide, have fairly small grains.

The process of sodium hydroxide production

More than 95% of the chlorine production capacity and approximately 100% of sodium hydroxide

production capacity is based on the hydrolysis of brine Dissolution.

In this process, the sodium chloride solution is decomposed electro less to chlorine

(gas chlorine) and sodium hydroxide and hydrogen.

If instead of using salt water (sodium chloride),

a calcium chloride solution or potassium chloride as the raw material is used,

The reaction product will contain potassium or calcium instead of sodium.

There are also processes where hydrogen converts liquid chloride into hydrogen

and chlorine,

or sodium melted chloride to chlorine and metallic sodium.

In producing liquid sodium hydroxide, using sodium chloride as the raw material,

about 1126 kg of sodium hydroxide and 28 kg of hydrogen are produced per 1000 kg of chlorine.

A large amount of hydrogen produced in this process is used to produce ammonia,

hydrochloric acid, and hydrogenation of organic compounds.

  Sodium hydroxide production method

Three methods for producing caustic soda:




Producing liquid sodium hydroxide with diaphragm method:

Using the diaphragm method, chlorine, sodium hydroxide (Noah),

and hydrogen is produced simultaneously.

In this process, the two reactor sections are separated by a

permeable diaphragm plate, often made of asbestos.

In the diaphragm reactor, saturated brine enters the anode portion of the cell,

where the chlorine gas is released, and then It flows to the Cathode section.

The role of the diaphragm in this method is to isolate the salt solution from

the liquid sodium hydroxide in the cathode,

where the hydrogen gas is released there.

The product of the process is a dilute solution of Brine and liquid sodium hydroxide.

In this solution, the liquid Density should reach 50% and the salt should be removed.

Sodium hydroxide is spilled over into nickel trays for Condensation.

And is heated at 1400 ° C to condensation from 50% to 98%.

So, about 3 tons of water evaporates per ton of liquid sodium hydroxide

 Produce liquid sodium hydroxide with membrane method:

The most common method of sodium hydroxide production is hydrolysis of salt water

in a membrane cell.The difference in this method with the diaphragm method is that

around each of the electrodes in the solution,

surrounded by a diaphragm surrounded by a membrane.

The saturated salt water enters the first reactor chamber
(where chlorine gas is released)It turns out.

Chloride ions are oxidized by the anode and converted to chlorine gas

by losing electrons. In the cathode, the positive ions of hydrogen,

which are obtained by the decomposition of water molecules,

The electric current is restored to the hydrogen gas and the hydroxide

ions released into the solution are released.The ion penetrating membrane in

the middle of the cell only allows for positive ions of sodium to cross into the second part of the cell

While chloride ions remain in the anode section.

In the cathode, hydroxide ions react with sodium ions to produce sodium hydroxide.

The Obtained sodium hydroxide has a significantly lower sodium chloride (salt)

As a result, it has a higher purity and higher quality than diaphragm production

And there is no need for a desalination process.

Produce liquid sodium hydroxide with mercury method:

In this method known as the Kestner-Kellner Process, the salt water saturation

the solution is placed above a thin layer of mercury.

In this process, mercury plays a role as a cathode and interacts with the sodium

formed in the solution, and a mixture of sodium and mercury (amalgam) is obtained.

Sodium-mercury amalgam is continuously released from the reactor and reacted with water,

which leads to the decomposition of this mixture with sodium hydroxide, hydrogen, and mercury.

The mercury is recovered from the mercury process and the chlorine formed in the anode is released

into the gas from the reactor.

Production of caustic soda flakes

Caustic soda is produced by utilizing the liquid caustic soda of petrochemicals during the process

of thickening and evaporation.

The process of producing caustic soda flakes is such that at first sodium hydroxide 50% liquid

is transmitted by special tanks to caustic soda flakes manufacturing companies.

And then, the liquid caustic soda during the process of production in the condensing lines,

while evaporating the water in it, turns into a solid caustic soda of 98-99%.