Caustic soda in Iran
Caustic soda in Iran

Caustic soda in Iran

Caustic soda in Iran : Caustic soda flakes 98-99% also known as sodium hydroxide (Noah)
as is an inorganic compound which is used in many different industries.
We have strong business relationship, and local contract with the leading caustic soda flakes/lye manufacturers in Iran.
The state-of-the-art facilities of the factories make us able to source high quality
caustic soda flakes with real purity which can be even used in food and
pharmaceutical industries.
With respect to our economical price directly from the manufacturers, product high quality,

professional packaging, and on-time delivery, we have already penetrated many markets such as Far East,
Middle East, Asian countries, Latin America, Turkey, Iraq, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan,
Afghanistan, Pakistan, Georgia, Syria for this product.

Caustic soda packing:

our manufactured caustic soda flake is packed in best quality laminated 25 kg polypropylene
bags with inside polyethylene layer. We can offer the bags inside 1 MT jumbo bags,

and also on 1.5 MT pallets.
For our major customers that order on no name basis, we are in position to design and print
customized packaging upon customers’ requirements based on solo partnership contracts.

Caustic soda delivery basis:

we have perfect access to all transportation routes to the globe especially CIS countries,
Middle East countries, Europe, and Africa by truck, train and vessel, and can dispatch our products
immediately to any country in the world with cost-effective rates, and deliver the goods to your final destination so that you can enjoy your purchase from our factory smoothly.

Payment term:

As there are some restrictions for Iranian banks, most of our customers asked for some solution
to be able to arrange cash – T/T payment for us outside Iran. Therefore, we tried to solve this issue.

We have partner company in Latvia the payment in cash – T/T and in AED/EUR/USD
currencies from our valuable customers around the world.

Our competence:

The economical prices directly from the manufacturers, high quality of the product as per the certified lab test of the factory,
and on-time delivery of the product are the most normal things any supplier must follow
to support its customers.
Therefore, we try hard to follow these simple but important priorities to support and be
loyal partners to our valued customers,
and also promote our markets and match ourselves with the new markets around the world.

Therefore, we invite all the traders, distributors and end-users to try us with our quality
services and competitive prices.

Caustic soda flakes Applications:

Refining alumina:

caustic soda flake is used in the refining of alumina containing more like bauxite to produce aluminum oxide.
Pulp and paper: Sodium hydroxide is an important commodity chemical for the pulp and paper industry.
Principal uses in pulp and paper production include the cooking/processing of Kraft pulps,
the extraction of lignin during the pulp bleaching sequences, and the on-site
manufacture of sodium hypochlorite.
The general pulp bleaching procedure involves a bleaching sequence during which impurities and colored matter in the pulp are oxidized and/or converted to alkali-soluble
and an extraction sequence during which the impurities are removed. Extraction stages
almost invariably use caustic soda.


caustic soda flake is used mainly for two processes in textile manufacture.
Mercerizing of fibre with sodium and hydroxide solution enables greater tensional
strength and consistent lustre. It also removes waxes and oils from fibre to make the fibre more receptive to bleaching and dying.

Detergent: caustic soda flake is also widely used in making soaps and detergents,
Sodium hydroxide was originally used for soap manufacture, but now has a wider
variety of functions.
As well as an extractor and refining agent for certain oils, sodium hydroxide is used to
produce active agents,
or builders in modern synthetic detergents.

Water treatment:
Caustic soda flake is utilized to raise the PH of water in a variety of applications.

Other applications:

Caustic soda flake is used for the desulphurization in the petrochemical industry.
Caustic soda flake is used for starch production.
Caustic soda flake is used for the manufacture of bio-diesel.
Caustic soda flake is a source of sodium ions for reactions that produce other sodium compounds.

What is soda ash?
What is soda ash?

What is soda ash?

What is soda ash? Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) called soda ash,
Soda crystals and washing soda are also known.
One of the most important industrial chemicals that is widely used
in the production of other alkali products
, Sodium salts and … are used.
Soda ash is the common name for sodium carbonate without water,
which is used industrially.
Sodium carbonate or its sodium hydroxide, in fact,
is sodium salts of carbonic acid,
which is normally in the form of Solid white.
Sodium carbonate on an industrial scale through the process of sowing
and using ammonia, limestone, and salt is produced.
One of the most important uses of sodium carbonate is in the glass industry.
Sodium carbonate has a relatively strong alkaline property and can be
extracted from the ash of many plants.

Physical and Chemical Properties of Sodium Carbonate

The melting point of sodium carbonate is 851 degrees Celsius.
This product decomposes at higher temperatures. So the boiling temperature
for this substance is not defined.
The solubility of sodium carbonate in water at 20 ° C is 215 g / l.

Physical Characteristics of carbonate

Sodium carbonate reacts with carbon dioxide and water to produce
bicarbonate sodium.
Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O → 2NaHCO3
Sodium bicarbonate produces sodium carbonate in the presence of sodium.
NaHCO3 + NaOH → Na2CO3 + H2O
The dissolution of sodium carbonate in water is a heat-reactive reaction.
For industrial applications, two types of sodium carbonate are used

• Heavy sodium carbonate
• Light Sodium Carbonate

The difference between heavy sodium carbonate and light sodium carbonate
is in density, particle size and application They are not chemically distinct.
Heavy sodium carbonate The mass density is about 1000 kg / m3 and particle
size 300-500 Micron
This kind of carbonate is often used in glass factories.
The larger particles of this kind of granule cause the absence of dust and
impurities and probability
Reduces particle flux during transport.
The density of sodium carbonate is about 500 kg / m3 and the size of sodium
carbonate’s component is about 100 microns.
Lightweight sodium carbonate is used to produce chemicals and detergents.

Application of sodium carbonate

Sodium carbonate is one of the most widely used materials in various industries.
Among the uses of sodium carbonate (soda ash), we can mention the following.

Glass manufacturing: Sodium carbonate is used in the glass industry.
The use of this material in glass can reduce the glass formation temperature
and save energy.

Production of chemicals: Sodium carbonate in the production of various chemicals
such as sodium bicarbonate, sodium Silicate, Sodium Triple Phosphate,
Sodium Dichromate, Sodium Aluminate, Sodium Cyanide. . . is used.

Paper production: In the industry, sodium carbonate paper is used as a
stabilizing agent for acidity, as well as for stripping of waste paper.

• Soap and detergent production: Its use in the production of soap and detergents
is used as alkali.

Water softening: Sodium carbonate in the ion exchange process removes
calcium and magnesium ions from the water and reduces its hardness.

• Urban Water Tanks: Soda ash, as a common additive in urban reservoirs,
is used to neutralize the acidic effect of chlorine and to increase ph.

• Home Appliance:

Sodium carbonate is used in homes as a water softener in the washing of clothes.
It resists magnesium ions and calcium in hard water and prevents the bond
formation They are used with detergent.
Without the use of sodium carbonate, an additional detergent is needed to
soak up magnesium ions and calcium Gets

• Dyeing: It is used as a bonding agent between colors and fibers.

• Food industry: As pH regulator and preservative.

• Electrolysis: As an electrolyte, it increases the rate of water decomposition.

Taxidermy: The process of removing meat from bones is used.

• Chemistry labs are used as the primary standard in titration reactions.

• Toothpaste: As a pH-enhancing agent, the flooring agent is used.

• Brick Making: As a wetting agent in the production of dough,
it reduces the amount of water used.

• Textile Industry: Used as an anti-acid agent in silk processing.

Petrochemicals and Crude Petroleum Refining: It is used as neutralizing in petrochemical processes.

• Purification of vegetable oils: acts as a free fatty acid separator.

• Smoke from smoke: In the process of sulfur removal, smoke from the flue is used.

Raw materials required for the production of sodium carbonate

The raw materials required to produce sodium carbonate by Solvay are limestone,
Normal salts and ammonia produced by the reaction of sodium carbonate below.

CaCO3 → CO2 + CaO

2NH3 + CO2 + H2O → (NH4) 2CO3

(NH4) 2CO3 + CO2 + H2O → 2NH4HCO3

NH4HCO3 + NaCl → NaHCO3 + NH4Cl

2NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O

Classification of chemicals
Classification of chemicals

Classification of chemicals

Classification of chemicals: Dangerous goods are classified and labeled
in many countries according to the United Nations system.
In this system, hazardous goods are categorized according to their hazardous properties in six classes.
These classes include nine distinct classes and a different class of materials.
The risks for each class are marked with special rhomboidal labels.
Some hazardous goods, including classes 8, 4, 1, 2 and 9, have sub-classes.
Which indicates a certain aspect of the dangers of the substance.
In some classes, subsequent categorization includes packaging groups
, which indicates the relative risk of matter inside a class
(PG-III low risk, PG-II medium risk, high-risk PGI)
Therefore, all packages, containers, and tankers carrying hazardous goods should
be labeled appropriately with the appropriate class name.
This label shows the nature of the risk using a color system and special characters,
as well as a hazard class item.

Class 1 Explosive

class 1

Includes substances that can cause explosions or pyrotechnic effects.
Production of explosives is generally limited and is subject to the relevant regulations.
The use of explosives for research needs is subject to obtaining the necessary permissions from the responsible organizations.

Explosives include 6 sub-classes:

Class 1-1 Explosives with a sudden and fearful explosion
Example: TNT Nitroglycerin, Mercury Fulminate

Class 1-2 Explosives with Risk of Throw (but not the danger of a blast of fearsome)
Example: bombs, grenades

Class 1-3 Explosive materials with a high fire hazard
Example: gunpowder, fireworks

Class 1-4 Explosives without fearsome explosion
Example: Fireworks on Toys

Classes 1-5 Explosive explosives with low explosive sensitivity
Depower like Proprietary Example: Explosive

Class 1-6 Explosive materials with very low explosive sensitivity

Class 2 gases

class 2

The hazardous goods of this class include pressure gases, liquid gases or pressure gases.

Gases include 3 sub-classes:

Class 2-1 flammable gases

Class 2-2 Non-flammable and non-toxic gases

Class 2-3 toxic gases

Toxic gases are gases that inhale them to cause death or serious health damage to humans.

Example: chlorine and ammonia.

Class 3 flammable liquids
class 3

For liquids flammable, a mixture of liquids or liquids containing solids is soluble or suspended.

Which can ignite in contact with a source of ignition, such as gasoline, thinners, paints, varnishes and flammable solvents?

It should be noted that in the older segmentation of this class, two sub-scales were divided into two sub-classes: 0-2 and 0-1.

But the new classification for subclass flammable liquids has not been taken into
consideration, but for these materials, the packaging groups (PG I, II, III) have been

PGI grade 3 – Highly flammable liquid
With an initial boiling point less than 08 ° C

Example: Di-ethyl ether, carbon disulfide

Class PG-II -3 Flammable Liquids Extremely high
With an initial boiling point greater than 08 ° C and a flash point less than
10 ° C

Like: gasoline, acetone

Class PIROGI -3 flammable liquid with flash point 10 to 92 ° C

Example: Crown, Turpentine Mineral

This group was called “subclass 2-3” in the previous division

Class 4 flammable solids

class 4

Hazardous materials in this class include materials with spontaneous combustion
potential as well as materials that can cause flammable gases in contact with water.
Also, solids (other than explosives) that immediately burn or cause fire are also classified in this class.

This class contains 3 sub-classes:

Class 4-1 flammable liquid

Materials that are easily ignited and combustible.
Example: Nitrocellulose, phosphorus, matches, and Acid Pic

Class 4-2 cylinders with spontaneous combustion potential
Example: Charcoal, cotton and white phosphorus

Class 4 – Dangerous substances in the wet state
Includes solids that create flammable gases in contact with water.
Example: aluminum phosphide and calcium carbide

Class 5 oxidizing substances

class 5

The oxidizing agent contains 2 sub-classes:

Class 5-1 Oxidizing agents (other than organic peroxides)

Like hydrogen peroxide, calcium hypochlorite (used in pools), ammonium nitrate and nitrates

Class 5-2 Organic peroxides (solid or liquid)

Examples: Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide, Benzoyl Peroxide, Di benzoyl, and Per
Acetic Acid.
Oxidizing substances are not necessarily combustible by themselves but may cause other materials to ignite.
For example, sodium peroxide in the presence of water creates a strongly exothermic reaction,
and the need for mixing with charcoal also causes spontaneous combustion.
Organic peroxides have a structure with bivalent oxygen.

These materials are thermal insecure materials and therefore may spontaneously
decompose, which can sometimes cause explosive reactions or burn quickly,
or be sensitive to impact or friction, or produce dangerous reactions with other materials

Class 6 Toxic and Infectious Substances

class 6


This class includes two sub-classes of toxic substances and infectious substances,
but toxic gases, previously classified in class 3-2, are not included in this class.

Class 6-1: Toxic substances (including liquids and toxic solids)

Toxic substances include substances that cause death or serious injury
and serious harm to humans if swallowed, inhaled or through skin contact.

Example: Sodium Cyanide (NaCN) Cyanides and Arsenic Compounds.

Class 6-2 Infectious agents

Substances are substances that are known to be infectious or possibly
pathogenic (microorganisms include bacteria, viruses, rickettsia, parasites, and fungi).
Vaccines and pathological specimens are examples of this.
The maintenance instructions, how to work and how to dispose of infectious
substances should be in accordance with the health regulations and the
mode of transportation of this group of materials subject to the provisions
of environmental protection

Class 7 radioactive substances

This class contains materials or materials that constantly emit radioactive contaminants.
More precisely, the radioactive substance is a substance with a specific activity greater than 70 KB q / kg.
The activity is specific to activity in a unit mass of a radioactive substance.
There are no sub-classes for this class, but different packing groups are considered.
Example: Radioisotopes and uranium

Class 8 corrosives

class 8
Corrosive materials are solid or liquid substances that can damage the living tissues
and equipment during contact with chemical agents.

In other words, corrosive substances are substances that, by chemical action,
cause severe damage to living tissues, equipment, and other materials.

Examples: Hydrofluoric Acid,


, and Clay Pools.

Class 9 Miscellaneous materials

class 9
This class shows the risk of miscellaneous materials that are not particularly severe
and are not classified in other classes.

Such as intense magnetic materials, aerosols, ammonium nitrate fertilizers,
and polyester granules.

Dangerous goods labels

This label represents various classes of hazardous goods and is used when
shipping these goods.

Industrial production of caustic soda
Industrial production of caustic soda

 Industrial production of caustic soda

 Industrial production of caustic soda

 Sodium Hydroxide is a solid and white substance with a melting point of 1388 ° C and

a density of 13.2.

This material usually reaches 98% or 99% purity for various uses Sodium hydroxide is

presented in four ways in terms of its appearance:

Caustic soda liquid

Sodium hydroxide liquid is Produced by Using the Hydrolysis Process of a Salt Solution,

in Petrochemicals and Liquid caustic soda production Units then will be transported by

special thanks to caustic soda flakes production units.

Caustic soda flakes

Caustic soda flakes are usually in white color and odorless material and are available at the flake.

Caustic soda pearls:

Caustic soda pearls are solid, white and similar to small snowball bullets,

which are used in more precision and finer production?

It is commonly used in pharmaceutical and textile industries with more sensitive applications

Sodium Hydroxide Powder:

This caustic soda or sodium hydroxide, have fairly small grains.

The process of sodium hydroxide production

More than 95% of the chlorine production capacity and approximately 100% of sodium hydroxide

production capacity is based on the hydrolysis of brine Dissolution.

In this process, the sodium chloride solution is decomposed electro less to chlorine

(gas chlorine) and sodium hydroxide and hydrogen.

If instead of using salt water (sodium chloride),

a calcium chloride solution or potassium chloride as the raw material is used,

The reaction product will contain potassium or calcium instead of sodium.

There are also processes where hydrogen converts liquid chloride into hydrogen

and chlorine,

or sodium melted chloride to chlorine and metallic sodium.

In producing liquid sodium hydroxide, using sodium chloride as the raw material,

about 1126 kg of sodium hydroxide and 28 kg of hydrogen are produced per 1000 kg of chlorine.

A large amount of hydrogen produced in this process is used to produce ammonia,

hydrochloric acid, and hydrogenation of organic compounds.

  Sodium hydroxide production method

Three methods for producing caustic soda:




Producing liquid sodium hydroxide with diaphragm method:

Using the diaphragm method, chlorine, sodium hydroxide (Noah),

and hydrogen is produced simultaneously.

In this process, the two reactor sections are separated by a

permeable diaphragm plate, often made of asbestos.

In the diaphragm reactor, saturated brine enters the anode portion of the cell,

where the chlorine gas is released, and then It flows to the Cathode section.

The role of the diaphragm in this method is to isolate the salt solution from

the liquid sodium hydroxide in the cathode,

where the hydrogen gas is released there.

The product of the process is a dilute solution of Brine and liquid sodium hydroxide.

In this solution, the liquid Density should reach 50% and the salt should be removed.

Sodium hydroxide is spilled over into nickel trays for Condensation.

And is heated at 1400 ° C to condensation from 50% to 98%.

So, about 3 tons of water evaporates per ton of liquid sodium hydroxide

 Produce liquid sodium hydroxide with membrane method:

The most common method of sodium hydroxide production is hydrolysis of salt water

in a membrane cell.The difference in this method with the diaphragm method is that

around each of the electrodes in the solution,

surrounded by a diaphragm surrounded by a membrane.

The saturated salt water enters the first reactor chamber
(where chlorine gas is released)It turns out.

Chloride ions are oxidized by the anode and converted to chlorine gas

by losing electrons. In the cathode, the positive ions of hydrogen,

which are obtained by the decomposition of water molecules,

The electric current is restored to the hydrogen gas and the hydroxide

ions released into the solution are released.The ion penetrating membrane in

the middle of the cell only allows for positive ions of sodium to cross into the second part of the cell

While chloride ions remain in the anode section.

In the cathode, hydroxide ions react with sodium ions to produce sodium hydroxide.

The Obtained sodium hydroxide has a significantly lower sodium chloride (salt)

As a result, it has a higher purity and higher quality than diaphragm production

And there is no need for a desalination process.

Produce liquid sodium hydroxide with mercury method:

In this method known as the Kestner-Kellner Process, the salt water saturation

the solution is placed above a thin layer of mercury.

In this process, mercury plays a role as a cathode and interacts with the sodium

formed in the solution, and a mixture of sodium and mercury (amalgam) is obtained.

Sodium-mercury amalgam is continuously released from the reactor and reacted with water,

which leads to the decomposition of this mixture with sodium hydroxide, hydrogen, and mercury.

The mercury is recovered from the mercury process and the chlorine formed in the anode is released

into the gas from the reactor.

Production of caustic soda flakes

Caustic soda is produced by utilizing the liquid caustic soda of petrochemicals during the process

of thickening and evaporation.

The process of producing caustic soda flakes is such that at first sodium hydroxide 50% liquid

is transmitted by special tanks to caustic soda flakes manufacturing companies.

And then, the liquid caustic soda during the process of production in the condensing lines,

while evaporating the water in it, turns into a solid caustic soda of 98-99%.