what is the uses of chlorine
Chlorine

what is the uses of chlorine

How Chlorine Keeps Pools Safe for Summertime Fun?

Most people probably wouldn’t want to go swimming in a giant, germ-filled petri dish.
But without modern chemistry, that’s what swimming in pools could be like.

Even a quick swim in unsanitized water could expose a person to illnesses such as diarrhea, swimmer’s ear and various types of skin infections,
including athlete’s foot.

What experts say about chemicals and pool safety:

  1. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that chlorine is added to water to kill germs.
    Chlorine and pH are the first line of defense against germs that can make swimmers sick, according to CDC.
  2.  Whether you choose chemical products or electrical devices to clean your pool or spa, you must maintain a certain amount of
    sanitizer to prevent disease-causing microorganisms from multiplying, according to Health Canada.
  3.  Belgian scientists also support pool disinfection, stating that chlorine is the best disinfectant currently available,
    and “there is no evidence that alternatives to chlorine will provide an appropriate solution for the disinfection of swimming pools.
    ” (Superior Health Council of Belgium)

What is chlorine and how is chlorine made?

Chlorine is a naturally-occurring chemical element and one of the basic building blocks of matter.
Chlorine is produced from ordinary salt, by passing an electric current through a solution of brine
(common salt dissolved in water) in a process called electrolysis.

Why is chlorine added to swimming pools?

Chlorine is added to the water to kill germs. When it is added to a swimming pool,
it forms a weak acid called hypochlorous acid that kills bacteria like salmonella and E.
coli, as well as germs that cause viruses such as diarrhea and swimmer’s ear.

How is pool water chlorinated?

Pools are sanitized using a variety of chlorine-based compounds including chlorine gas, sodium hypochlorite (liquid bleach),
calcium hypochlorite, lithium hypochlorite and chlorinated isocyanurates.
When any of these compounds contact water, they release Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the active sanitizing agent.

How are salt-water pools different from chlorinated pools?

Both types of pools actually use chlorine. Salt-water pools are chlorinated pools in which the chlorine is generated on site from sodium chloride. Other types of chlorinated pools use chlorine to disinfect the water with chlorine tablets or sticks.

Why do pools sometimes have a chlorine or chemical smell?

Healthy pools don’t smell like chemicals. Pool water is often described as smelling like chlorine,
but a well-managed pool shouldn’t have an odor.
The pool water scent does not come from the chlorine itself but rather from chemical compounds called chloramines,
which build up in pool water when it is improperly treated.

Chloramines result from the combination of two ingredients:

(1) the chlorine disinfectants added to sanitize swimming pools,
(2) perspiration, oils and urine that enter pools from swimmers’ bodies.

Chloramines can be eliminated using chlorine.
“Shock treatment” or “super-chlorination” is the practice of adding extra chlorine to pools to destroy ammonia and
the organic compounds that combine with chlorine to make chloramines.

Does chlorine irritate a swimmer’s eyes?

Swimmers might worry “there is too much chlorine in the pool” if, after a swim, their eyes are reddened or irritated.
However, when pool water is irritating, that is typically a sign that there is not enough chlorine in swimming pool water!
To keep a pool, hot tub or spa safe, the water must be tested on a daily basis, especially when it’s being used a lot.

LITHIUM AND ITS COMPOUNDS
Lithium

LITHIUM AND ITS COMPOUNDS

Lithium (from Greek: λίθος, translate. lithos, lit. ‘stone’) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal.
Under standard conditions, it is the lightest metal and the lightest solid element. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive and flammable, and is stored in mineral oil.
When cut, it exhibits a metallic luster, but moist air corrodes it quickly to a dull silvery gray, then black tarnish.
It never occurs freely in nature, but only in (usually ionic) compounds, such as pegmatitic minerals, which were once the main source of lithium.
Due to its solubility as an ion, it is present in ocean water and is commonly obtained from brines. Lithium metal is isolated electrolytically from a mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF LITHIUM AND ITS COMPOUNDS

Lithium is a soft, the lightest, silver-white, highly reactive metallic element in Group 1 of periodic table; atomic number 3; atomic mass 6.941; melting point ca 180.5 C; boiling point ca 1,342 C; specific gravity 0.534 g/cm3 valence +1; electronic config. 2-1 or 1s 22s 1. Lithium metal is prepared by the electrolysis of a molten mixture of potassium and lithium chlorides.

It is used in various alloys with magnesium, copper, manganese, cadmium and aluminum to form a strong, low density material,as a heat transfer medium, in cooling system of nuclear reactor, and as a scavenger, in ceramics, glasses and in rocket fuel.
Lithium forms many important inorganic and organic compounds such as;

Li. Hydride (LiH):

Flammable, white, translucent solids; decomposes at 850 °C; reacts violently with water to yield hydrogen and lithium hydroxide; used as a hydrogen source or reducing agent to prepare other hydrides amides and 2H isotopic compound, as a shielding material for thermal neutrons.

Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH); white, hygroscopic, crystalline material; soluble in water, slightly soluble in ethanol and insoluble in ether; there are commercially forms of mono hydrate and anhydrous;

used for purification of gases and air (as a carbon dioxide absorbent), as a heat transfer medium, as a storage-battery electrolyte, as a catalyst for polymerization, in ceramics, manufacturing other lithium compounds and esterification specially for lithium stearate which is used as general purpose lubricating greases due to its high resistance to water and the useful at both high and low temperature.

white granular powder; slight soluble in water, melts at 723°C, decomposes above 1310°C; It is prepared commercially by treating the ore with sulphuric acid at 250°C and leaching the product to give a solution of lithium sulphate.
The carbonate is then obtained by precipitation with sodium carbonate solution; It is used as a flux in the aluminum, glass and ceramics production to improves the brightness of glazes and increases the firing range.
It is a source of Lithia, strong high temperature flux.
It is used as an additive in cement industry to improve acceleration and fast setting process.
It is used as an additive in floor screeds and tiles.
It is used for the production of other lithium chemicals and organic compounds as a catalyst.
Pharmaceutical grade of lithium carbonate is used for the primary treatment of depression and bipolar disordez

Li.Bromide (LiBr);

white powder with a bitter taste; melts at 547°C,soluble in water, alcohol and glycol;
used as an operating medium for air-conditioning and industrial drying system due to its very hygroscopic property.
and as a sedative and hypnotic in medicine.
It is also used in manufacturing pharmaceuticals and alkylation process. It is used as brazing and welding fluxes.
Lithium chloride; white hygroscopic deliquescent granule or powder having high melting point at 614°C.
Lithium chloride and bromide are the mostly periscopic materials used as an operating medium for air-conditioning and industrial drying system. It is used as brazing and welding fluxes. It is also used in as an intermediate for manufacturing other chemical compounds.

Li.Fluoride (LiF);

white poisonous powder melting at 870°C, boiling at 1670°C; slightly soluble in water, soluble in acids but insoluble in alcohol; t is used as a flux in the aluminum, glass and ceramics production to improves the brightness of glazes and increases the firing range. It is used as a flux for brazing and welding of zirconium, titanium and magnesium. It is used as a heat-exchange medium.
Lithium Iodide (LiI; LiI.3H2O) white to yellowish solid; soluble in water alcohol; there are commercially anhydrous form (melts at 446°C) and trihydrate form (loses water at 72°C); It is used in organic synthesis, manufacturing medicines and mineral waters.

Li. Stearate (LiC18H35O2);

white crystalline powder derived from lithium hydroxide with cooking tallow (or other animal fat); melting at 220 C; used as general purpose lubricating greases providing high resistance to water and the useful at both high and low temperature, which have found extensive applications in the automotive, aircraft and heavy machinery industry. It is also applied as a stabilizer in cosmetics as well as plastic industry. It is used as a corrosion inhibitor in petroleum.

Li. Molybdate (Li2MoO4);

white crystals melting at 705°C; soluble in water; used as a catalyst for petroleum cracking and as a mill additive for steel.
Lithia (Li2O); A white crystalline compound, melting at 1700°C. the main uses are in lubricating greases, ceramics, glass and refractories, and as a flux in brazing and welding.

Li. Carbide (Li2C2);
Li. Phosphate (Li3PO4);
Li. Sulphate (Li2SO4);

white crystalline material, soluble in water but insoluble in ethanol. It forms a mono-hydrate and an anhydrous form, the compound is prepared by the reaction of the hydroxide or carbonate with sulphuric acid. Lithium Tetrahydridoaluminate (Lithal, LiAlH4); A powerful reducing agent in synthetic organic chemistry; aldehydes, esters and ketones to the corresponding alcohols. nitriles to primary amines.