what is the uses of chlorine

what is the uses of chlorine

How Chlorine Keeps Pools Safe for Summertime Fun?

Most people probably wouldn’t want to go swimming in a giant, germ-filled petri dish.
But without modern chemistry, that’s what swimming in pools could be like.

Even a quick swim in unsanitized water could expose a person to illnesses such as diarrhea, swimmer’s ear and various types of skin infections,
including athlete’s foot.

What experts say about chemicals and pool safety:

  1. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that chlorine is added to water to kill germs.
    Chlorine and pH are the first line of defense against germs that can make swimmers sick, according to CDC.
  2.  Whether you choose chemical products or electrical devices to clean your pool or spa, you must maintain a certain amount of
    sanitizer to prevent disease-causing microorganisms from multiplying, according to Health Canada.
  3.  Belgian scientists also support pool disinfection, stating that chlorine is the best disinfectant currently available,
    and “there is no evidence that alternatives to chlorine will provide an appropriate solution for the disinfection of swimming pools.
    ” (Superior Health Council of Belgium)

What is chlorine and how is chlorine made?

Chlorine is a naturally-occurring chemical element and one of the basic building blocks of matter.
Chlorine is produced from ordinary salt, by passing an electric current through a solution of brine
(common salt dissolved in water) in a process called electrolysis.

Why is chlorine added to swimming pools?

Chlorine is added to the water to kill germs. When it is added to a swimming pool,
it forms a weak acid called hypochlorous acid that kills bacteria like salmonella and E.
coli, as well as germs that cause viruses such as diarrhea and swimmer’s ear.

How is pool water chlorinated?

Pools are sanitized using a variety of chlorine-based compounds including chlorine gas, sodium hypochlorite (liquid bleach),
calcium hypochlorite, lithium hypochlorite and chlorinated isocyanurates.
When any of these compounds contact water, they release Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the active sanitizing agent.

How are salt-water pools different from chlorinated pools?

Both types of pools actually use chlorine. Salt-water pools are chlorinated pools in which the chlorine is generated on site from sodium chloride. Other types of chlorinated pools use chlorine to disinfect the water with chlorine tablets or sticks.

Why do pools sometimes have a chlorine or chemical smell?

Healthy pools don’t smell like chemicals. Pool water is often described as smelling like chlorine,
but a well-managed pool shouldn’t have an odor.
The pool water scent does not come from the chlorine itself but rather from chemical compounds called chloramines,
which build up in pool water when it is improperly treated.

Chloramines result from the combination of two ingredients:

(1) the chlorine disinfectants added to sanitize swimming pools,
(2) perspiration, oils and urine that enter pools from swimmers’ bodies.

Chloramines can be eliminated using chlorine.
“Shock treatment” or “super-chlorination” is the practice of adding extra chlorine to pools to destroy ammonia and
the organic compounds that combine with chlorine to make chloramines.

Does chlorine irritate a swimmer’s eyes?

Swimmers might worry “there is too much chlorine in the pool” if, after a swim, their eyes are reddened or irritated.
However, when pool water is irritating, that is typically a sign that there is not enough chlorine in swimming pool water!
To keep a pool, hot tub or spa safe, the water must be tested on a daily basis, especially when it’s being used a lot.



Lithium (from Greek: λίθος, translate. lithos, lit. ‘stone’) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal.
Under standard conditions, it is the lightest metal and the lightest solid element. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive and flammable, and is stored in mineral oil.
When cut, it exhibits a metallic luster, but moist air corrodes it quickly to a dull silvery gray, then black tarnish.
It never occurs freely in nature, but only in (usually ionic) compounds, such as pegmatitic minerals, which were once the main source of lithium.
Due to its solubility as an ion, it is present in ocean water and is commonly obtained from brines. Lithium metal is isolated electrolytically from a mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride.


Lithium is a soft, the lightest, silver-white, highly reactive metallic element in Group 1 of periodic table; atomic number 3; atomic mass 6.941; melting point ca 180.5 C; boiling point ca 1,342 C; specific gravity 0.534 g/cm3 valence +1; electronic config. 2-1 or 1s 22s 1. Lithium metal is prepared by the electrolysis of a molten mixture of potassium and lithium chlorides.

It is used in various alloys with magnesium, copper, manganese, cadmium and aluminum to form a strong, low density material,as a heat transfer medium, in cooling system of nuclear reactor, and as a scavenger, in ceramics, glasses and in rocket fuel.
Lithium forms many important inorganic and organic compounds such as;

Li. Hydride (LiH):

Flammable, white, translucent solids; decomposes at 850 °C; reacts violently with water to yield hydrogen and lithium hydroxide; used as a hydrogen source or reducing agent to prepare other hydrides amides and 2H isotopic compound, as a shielding material for thermal neutrons.

Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH); white, hygroscopic, crystalline material; soluble in water, slightly soluble in ethanol and insoluble in ether; there are commercially forms of mono hydrate and anhydrous;

used for purification of gases and air (as a carbon dioxide absorbent), as a heat transfer medium, as a storage-battery electrolyte, as a catalyst for polymerization, in ceramics, manufacturing other lithium compounds and esterification specially for lithium stearate which is used as general purpose lubricating greases due to its high resistance to water and the useful at both high and low temperature.

white granular powder; slight soluble in water, melts at 723°C, decomposes above 1310°C; It is prepared commercially by treating the ore with sulphuric acid at 250°C and leaching the product to give a solution of lithium sulphate.
The carbonate is then obtained by precipitation with sodium carbonate solution; It is used as a flux in the aluminum, glass and ceramics production to improves the brightness of glazes and increases the firing range.
It is a source of Lithia, strong high temperature flux.
It is used as an additive in cement industry to improve acceleration and fast setting process.
It is used as an additive in floor screeds and tiles.
It is used for the production of other lithium chemicals and organic compounds as a catalyst.
Pharmaceutical grade of lithium carbonate is used for the primary treatment of depression and bipolar disordez

Li.Bromide (LiBr);

white powder with a bitter taste; melts at 547°C,soluble in water, alcohol and glycol;
used as an operating medium for air-conditioning and industrial drying system due to its very hygroscopic property.
and as a sedative and hypnotic in medicine.
It is also used in manufacturing pharmaceuticals and alkylation process. It is used as brazing and welding fluxes.
Lithium chloride; white hygroscopic deliquescent granule or powder having high melting point at 614°C.
Lithium chloride and bromide are the mostly periscopic materials used as an operating medium for air-conditioning and industrial drying system. It is used as brazing and welding fluxes. It is also used in as an intermediate for manufacturing other chemical compounds.

Li.Fluoride (LiF);

white poisonous powder melting at 870°C, boiling at 1670°C; slightly soluble in water, soluble in acids but insoluble in alcohol; t is used as a flux in the aluminum, glass and ceramics production to improves the brightness of glazes and increases the firing range. It is used as a flux for brazing and welding of zirconium, titanium and magnesium. It is used as a heat-exchange medium.
Lithium Iodide (LiI; LiI.3H2O) white to yellowish solid; soluble in water alcohol; there are commercially anhydrous form (melts at 446°C) and trihydrate form (loses water at 72°C); It is used in organic synthesis, manufacturing medicines and mineral waters.

Li. Stearate (LiC18H35O2);

white crystalline powder derived from lithium hydroxide with cooking tallow (or other animal fat); melting at 220 C; used as general purpose lubricating greases providing high resistance to water and the useful at both high and low temperature, which have found extensive applications in the automotive, aircraft and heavy machinery industry. It is also applied as a stabilizer in cosmetics as well as plastic industry. It is used as a corrosion inhibitor in petroleum.

Li. Molybdate (Li2MoO4);

white crystals melting at 705°C; soluble in water; used as a catalyst for petroleum cracking and as a mill additive for steel.
Lithia (Li2O); A white crystalline compound, melting at 1700°C. the main uses are in lubricating greases, ceramics, glass and refractories, and as a flux in brazing and welding.

Li. Carbide (Li2C2);
Li. Phosphate (Li3PO4);
Li. Sulphate (Li2SO4);

white crystalline material, soluble in water but insoluble in ethanol. It forms a mono-hydrate and an anhydrous form, the compound is prepared by the reaction of the hydroxide or carbonate with sulphuric acid. Lithium Tetrahydridoaluminate (Lithal, LiAlH4); A powerful reducing agent in synthetic organic chemistry; aldehydes, esters and ketones to the corresponding alcohols. nitriles to primary amines.

Sodium hydroxide details
Sodium hydroxide details

Sodium hydroxide details

Sodium hydroxide details : Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) an inorganic compound with following synonyms

Caustic soda


Sodium hydrate

NaOH widely used inorganic industrial chemical.

Sodium hydroxide’s chemical formula is NaOH

NaOH molecular weight of 39.997 g/mol

Sodium hydroxide is containing ph of ~12-14

Sodium hydroxide characteristics can be mentioned as

Raw material for various industrial products Co-product in chlorine synthesis

Strong base

Highly corrosive

Auxiliary chemical

Odorless material

Caustic soda forms

Caustic soda is available in two forms – Caustic soda lye and Caustic soda solid.
Solid form of caustic soda can be in the form of Caustic soda flakes or Caustic soda granules.

Pure form of sodium hydroxide also available as

Sodium hydroxide pellets

Sodium hydroxide flakes

Sodium hydroxide granule

Sodium hydroxide solution

Caustic soda has wide variety of industrial sectors like

In pulp and paper processing industry caustic soda used at the stages like bleaching process,
in de-inking of waste paper, and in water treatment.

Next major industry like textile industry caustic soda is used to process cotton and synthetic fibers

Caustic soda is utilized more in the soap and detergent industry.

Other caustic soda uses include

In oil and gas industry – to remove pungent smells

In household cleaning products

In beverage bottles

In home soap making

Worldwide there is high demand for caustic soda and increase in caustic soda prices,
applications in daily lives this article gives the different modern caustic soda manufacturing processes.

Production method

Sodium Hydroxide solutions are produced by three different technologies

Mercury cells

Membrane cells

Diaphragm cells

Each of above processes utilizes sodium chloride (NaCl) salt as the primary raw material.
Electrolytic splitting of salt results in products like chlorine and sodium ion (Na+).
In turn Na+ will react with water in the mercury cell to form Sodium hydroxide and Hydrogen as by product.

Mercury Cell

Fig. [1] Mercury cell

In the Mercury Cell Process saturated brine voyages down a steel trough roughly 15 meters in
length and one-meter-wide between a streaming film of mercury
(the cathode) and titanium plates (the anodes). Direct current is connected between the anode and cathode.
Chlorine freed at the anodes gathers above the brine and is begun as
a hot, wet and corrosive gas.

Sodium ions are released at the surface of the streaming mercury cathode,
forming an amalgam of low concentration with the mercury,
which streams out of the cell without reacting with the water or chlorine.

The mercury cell thus has two products

(i) Hot, wet chlorine

(ii) Sodium amalgam

The soda cell or decomposer is a cylindrical steel trough loaded with graphite balls or graphite electrodes.

The sodium amalgam is passed, along with pure water, into the decomposer,
where it reacts to transform Sodium hydroxide as a controlled 50 per
cent aqueous solution and hydrogen gas,

liberating fee mercury, which is reused again to the electrolytic cell.

The graphite provides a surface that expedites this reaction.

The following two types of reactions called brine cell and the soda
cell respectively.

Brine Cell

                       2Cl = Cl2 + e

                       Na + e = Na

                       Na + Hg = Na/Hg

Soda Cell

                          2 Na/Hg + 2 H2O = 2NaOH + H2 + 2Hg

Diaphragm Cell

This method produces 71 per cent of Sodium hydroxide.
Diaphragm Cell process utilizes asbestos or alternate substitutes to asbestos,
to separate the co-products Sodium Hydroxide (Caustic Soda) and Chlorine.

The production of 50 per cent NaOH occurs primarily outside of the electrolytic cell.

The diaphragm cell produces a very weak ‘cell liquor,’ that contains 12-14 per cent,
by weight, NaOH and the constant volume of NaCl salt.
The cell liquor is subsequently evaporated in a three or four ‘effect’ evaporation method
to a final nominal concentration of 50 per cent NaOH by weight.

The surplus salt is precipitated and filtered through the evaporation method for subsequent reuse/recycle.

This method produces the lowest quality electrochemical NaOH solutions.

The quality considerations with respect to the diaphragm cell produced Caustic solutions include comparatively high salt,
chlorates, carbonates, and sulfates. Salt, as NaCl, concentrations are
typically 1.0 per cent, with maximums ranging from 1.1 to 1.3 weight per cent, counting on producer.

The diaphragm cell created Caustic Soda (NaOH) is usually referred as Diaphragm Cell Grade. It is conjointly known as Commercial Grade, Technical Grade, and occasionally Technical Diaphragm or other similar combinations.

An additional ‘grade’ of Caustic Soda (NaOH) produced by the diaphragm cell method is the sublimate grade.
The production of sublimate Grade involves the further evaporation of the 50 per cent Diaphragm Grade NaOH solution to cut back the salt concentration.
The higher concentration solution is then re-diluted to the 50% concentration that is commercially available as sublimate grade Caustic Soda.

Common uses include process and sewer water neutralization,
textiles production, soaps and detergents and aluminum production.
These uses and applications typically can confer with the Caustic Soda as any of the varied grades.

Membrane Cell

This method produces approximately 13 per cent of Sodium Hydroxide.
The membrane cell method utilizes a selective membrane that separates
the Chlorine and Sodium ions. The membrane permits the Sodium ion to migrate across the membrane
whereas keeping the Chlorine gas and salt (brine) solution in a compartment on the opposite facet of the membrane.

The Sodium ion is reacted with refined water as within the mercury cell to provide the Caustic Soda (NaOH).
Evaporation is employed, as within the diaphragm method,
to lift the concentration up to the nominal 50 weight per cent solution.
The salt concentrations are not targeted as considerably during this
evaporation method attributable to the selective diffusion nature of
the membranes as well as the reduced quantity of evaporation needed
during this method opposed to the diaphragm evaporation.

The Caustic Soda produced by the membrane cell process is most typically brought up
as Membrane Grade. It conjointly contains a growing acceptance as
a Rayon Grade product in all areas outside of rayon fiber production.

Hope this article would be helpful.

Arax chemi Co. is a great producer of caustic soda flakes, and we are here to do service for you including export caustic soda flakes to your country or any other place you have inquiry.

Contact us for further details


office: +98-21-36442712 to 18

Export unit :

Caustic soda in Iran
Caustic soda in Iran

Caustic soda in Iran

Caustic soda in Iran : Caustic soda flakes 98-99% also known as sodium hydroxide (Noah)
as is an inorganic compound which is used in many different industries.
We have strong business relationship, and local contract with the leading caustic soda flakes/lye manufacturers in Iran.
The state-of-the-art facilities of the factories make us able to source high quality
caustic soda flakes with real purity which can be even used in food and
pharmaceutical industries.
With respect to our economical price directly from the manufacturers, product high quality,

professional packaging, and on-time delivery, we have already penetrated many markets such as Far East,
Middle East, Asian countries, Latin America, Turkey, Iraq, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan,
Afghanistan, Pakistan, Georgia, Syria for this product.

Caustic soda packing:

our manufactured caustic soda flake is packed in best quality laminated 25 kg polypropylene
bags with inside polyethylene layer. We can offer the bags inside 1 MT jumbo bags,

and also on 1.5 MT pallets.
For our major customers that order on no name basis, we are in position to design and print
customized packaging upon customers’ requirements based on solo partnership contracts.

Caustic soda delivery basis:

we have perfect access to all transportation routes to the globe especially CIS countries,
Middle East countries, Europe, and Africa by truck, train and vessel, and can dispatch our products
immediately to any country in the world with cost-effective rates, and deliver the goods to your final destination so that you can enjoy your purchase from our factory smoothly.

Payment term:

As there are some restrictions for Iranian banks, most of our customers asked for some solution
to be able to arrange cash – T/T payment for us outside Iran. Therefore, we tried to solve this issue.

We have partner company in Latvia the payment in cash – T/T and in AED/EUR/USD
currencies from our valuable customers around the world.

Our competence:

The economical prices directly from the manufacturers, high quality of the product as per the certified lab test of the factory,
and on-time delivery of the product are the most normal things any supplier must follow
to support its customers.
Therefore, we try hard to follow these simple but important priorities to support and be
loyal partners to our valued customers,
and also promote our markets and match ourselves with the new markets around the world.

Therefore, we invite all the traders, distributors and end-users to try us with our quality
services and competitive prices.

Caustic soda flakes Applications:

Refining alumina:

caustic soda flake is used in the refining of alumina containing more like bauxite to produce aluminum oxide.
Pulp and paper: Sodium hydroxide is an important commodity chemical for the pulp and paper industry.
Principal uses in pulp and paper production include the cooking/processing of Kraft pulps,
the extraction of lignin during the pulp bleaching sequences, and the on-site
manufacture of sodium hypochlorite.
The general pulp bleaching procedure involves a bleaching sequence during which impurities and colored matter in the pulp are oxidized and/or converted to alkali-soluble
and an extraction sequence during which the impurities are removed. Extraction stages
almost invariably use caustic soda.


caustic soda flake is used mainly for two processes in textile manufacture.
Mercerizing of fibre with sodium and hydroxide solution enables greater tensional
strength and consistent lustre. It also removes waxes and oils from fibre to make the fibre more receptive to bleaching and dying.

Detergent: caustic soda flake is also widely used in making soaps and detergents,
Sodium hydroxide was originally used for soap manufacture, but now has a wider
variety of functions.
As well as an extractor and refining agent for certain oils, sodium hydroxide is used to
produce active agents,
or builders in modern synthetic detergents.

Water treatment:
Caustic soda flake is utilized to raise the PH of water in a variety of applications.

Other applications:

Caustic soda flake is used for the desulphurization in the petrochemical industry.
Caustic soda flake is used for starch production.
Caustic soda flake is used for the manufacture of bio-diesel.
Caustic soda flake is a source of sodium ions for reactions that produce other sodium compounds.

caustic soda flakes
caustic soda flakes

Caustic soda  flakes

Caustic soda  flakes : Caustic Soda Lye is one of the most widely used chemicals
in the industry.
Caustic soda is a solution of Sodium hydroxide (NAOH) in water.
It is a strong base with a wide range of applications in different industries.
We produce caustic soda with  chlorine and hydrogen from the electrolysis
of salt brine.

With our production in four plants in Europe and our quality commitment,
we guarantee a high service level towards our customers.

Worldwide, the major users of caustic soda are the aluminum industry,
pulp & paper and the chemical industry.

The main applications are water treatment and water purification,
combination as cleaning agent,
or a wide range of uses in chemical industry like starch production or
for the desulphurization in the petrochemical industry.

Caustic soda is obtained from the electrolysis of salt.
A concentrated solution of purified salt (Na-Cl) in demineralized water (i.e. brine)
is decomposed in an electrolytic cell by the passage of an electrical current (DC).

In the electrolytic cell, the sodium chloride solution is decomposed to chlorine at
the anode and to a sodium hydroxide solution and hydrogen at the cathode.


  • water demineralization: regeneration of ion ex changers
  • drinking water production: partial water softening
  • beverages: bottle-cleaning
  • dairy: cleaning production installations
  • rayon industry: preparation of spinning solutions
  • pharmaceutical industry: various products, including sodium lactate
  • cooking oils and fats: refining and purification
  • production of starches and derivatives
  • petroleum industry: refining and desulfurization
  • waste-water treatment: pH-correction, flocculants enhancers
  • steel production: ammonia recovery in cokes production

Arax chemistry industry group


ARAX CHEMISTRY industrial group, great, manufacturer of Caustic Soda flakes
with high quality,

world-class packaging, the price-appropriate and up to date rate
is ready to provide any service to domestic and foreign customers.

contact us:

+98912 930 1051

+98912 930 1052



Caustic soda in leather manufacturing
Caustic soda in leather manufacturing

Caustic soda in leather manufacturing

Caustic soda in Leather Manufacturing: caustic soda as a highly reactive alkali
is widely used in various industries.
Caustic soda has a faster and stronger reactivity than other alkali materials.
The tannery or leather process makes the corrosive skin a stable,
permanent and flexible natural material for many applications.
This natural material is called “leather”, which has many uses.
Leather dressing or tanning has several stages during which the skin turns into

Souse and soaking

Chemicals used in the leather industry
At this stage, the skin will soda from salt.
Cold water is passed through the soda salt skin and the salt dissolves in water.
With this, the skin becomes aqueous.
In this process, some proteins in the skin are removed from the skin with blood
and other water-soluble proteins.
Exit of these proteins increases the quality of the skin.
At this stage, antibacterial agents (often chlorine compounds) are commonly used.
And, substances such as sodium sulfide (S2Na) or sodium
tetra sulfide (4 s2Na) can be used in water.
Until the root of the hair becomes loose.
then, water-soluble proteins are removed from the skin,
the skin returns to its natural state by absorbing water.
And it will be ready for the next steps.


At this stage, lime operations are performed on the skin.
By raising the pH of the blood, the roots of the hair are loose and help
remove excess proteins and fats.
By placing the skin in this environment, the keratin molecules of the hair are
broken down without skin collagen damage.


After the lime scale process, it is necessary to remove all unnecessary skin tissues.
At this stage, using a device called the muscle, meat and other extra tissue
remaining on the skin separated from it And cause the chemicals that
are used in the next steps to uniformly penetrate the skin.

Leather Lining and Curling

After decay, you must remove wool and hair and other proteins from the skin.
To do this, they put it in a solution of lime and add a little sodium sulfide.
It combines hair and hair wrapping.
In addition to sodium sulfide, other compounds such as methylamine,
sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate are also used;
These materials are used to facilitate the process of manipulation.

Remove lime

The remaining lime from the previous step must be completely removed
as it may cause the staining phase to be difficult.
For this purpose, chemicals used in the leather industry such as ammonium
salts, sodium bisulfite,Sulfuric acid.


The skin is eaten in an alkaline solution with ammonium salts,
which increases the effect of enzymes.
And the surface of the skin is smooth and clean.
Meanwhile, the flexibility of the skin also increases.

Fat removal

The skin of some animals is greasier and requires a separate step to remove fat.
At this stage, sodium hydroxide is usually used to convert fat to soap
and to wash it with water.

Leather coloring

For coloring leather, organic colored materials and inorganic colored
materials such as zinc oxide and lead chromite are used.

The best manufacturer of caustic soda flakes
The best manufacturer of caustic soda flakes

The best manufacturer of caustic soda flakes
The best producer of caustic soda : Arax Chemistry Co. as one of the largest
producer of caustic soda uses the new production line and utilizes the production
of liquid sodium hydroxide in the form of update technology
has been producing this product with membrane electrolyzes and in a perfectly
principled manner.
The company’s activities include the production of solid sodium hydroxide 98% in
triple-layer bags (polyethylene and Polypropylene and a plastic inner layer)
and metal buckets, which are for use in all industries Including the production of
detergents and factories for the production of paper and vegetable oil and dairy products and refineries
And petrochemicals and ……. It is produced.

It acts as an intermediate and reactive process in which many substances,
including solvents, Plastics, Synthetic fibers, Bleaching agents, Adhesives,
Coatings, Inks, Paints, Herbicides and Materials
A drug such as aspirin is produced, used.
Caustic soda is also used in the oil and gas industry, ceramic industry,
the neutralization of acidic water
And cleaning and removing acid compounds from exhaust gases.

Hence, this chemical is one of the most widely used chemicals in the industry.
Important points in this factory is the high quality of the product and the standard
packaging of it.

The Arax Chemical Industry Group has issued a major share of its products to
foreign markets And, in line with national production, supports domestic
consumers and the domestic market This product covers.

Stay in touch with us

To get caustic soda, contact Arax Chiemi’s consultants and experts
Get your product in the shortest possible time and at the most affordable price.

What is soda ash?
What is soda ash?

What is soda ash?

What is soda ash? Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) called soda ash,
Soda crystals and washing soda are also known.
One of the most important industrial chemicals that is widely used
in the production of other alkali products
, Sodium salts and … are used.
Soda ash is the common name for sodium carbonate without water,
which is used industrially.
Sodium carbonate or its sodium hydroxide, in fact,
is sodium salts of carbonic acid,
which is normally in the form of Solid white.
Sodium carbonate on an industrial scale through the process of sowing
and using ammonia, limestone, and salt is produced.
One of the most important uses of sodium carbonate is in the glass industry.
Sodium carbonate has a relatively strong alkaline property and can be
extracted from the ash of many plants.

Physical and Chemical Properties of Sodium Carbonate

The melting point of sodium carbonate is 851 degrees Celsius.
This product decomposes at higher temperatures. So the boiling temperature
for this substance is not defined.
The solubility of sodium carbonate in water at 20 ° C is 215 g / l.

Physical Characteristics of carbonate

Sodium carbonate reacts with carbon dioxide and water to produce
bicarbonate sodium.
Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O → 2NaHCO3
Sodium bicarbonate produces sodium carbonate in the presence of sodium.
NaHCO3 + NaOH → Na2CO3 + H2O
The dissolution of sodium carbonate in water is a heat-reactive reaction.
For industrial applications, two types of sodium carbonate are used

• Heavy sodium carbonate
• Light Sodium Carbonate

The difference between heavy sodium carbonate and light sodium carbonate
is in density, particle size and application They are not chemically distinct.
Heavy sodium carbonate The mass density is about 1000 kg / m3 and particle
size 300-500 Micron
This kind of carbonate is often used in glass factories.
The larger particles of this kind of granule cause the absence of dust and
impurities and probability
Reduces particle flux during transport.
The density of sodium carbonate is about 500 kg / m3 and the size of sodium
carbonate’s component is about 100 microns.
Lightweight sodium carbonate is used to produce chemicals and detergents.

Application of sodium carbonate

Sodium carbonate is one of the most widely used materials in various industries.
Among the uses of sodium carbonate (soda ash), we can mention the following.

Glass manufacturing: Sodium carbonate is used in the glass industry.
The use of this material in glass can reduce the glass formation temperature
and save energy.

Production of chemicals: Sodium carbonate in the production of various chemicals
such as sodium bicarbonate, sodium Silicate, Sodium Triple Phosphate,
Sodium Dichromate, Sodium Aluminate, Sodium Cyanide. . . is used.

Paper production: In the industry, sodium carbonate paper is used as a
stabilizing agent for acidity, as well as for stripping of waste paper.

• Soap and detergent production: Its use in the production of soap and detergents
is used as alkali.

Water softening: Sodium carbonate in the ion exchange process removes
calcium and magnesium ions from the water and reduces its hardness.

• Urban Water Tanks: Soda ash, as a common additive in urban reservoirs,
is used to neutralize the acidic effect of chlorine and to increase ph.

• Home Appliance:

Sodium carbonate is used in homes as a water softener in the washing of clothes.
It resists magnesium ions and calcium in hard water and prevents the bond
formation They are used with detergent.
Without the use of sodium carbonate, an additional detergent is needed to
soak up magnesium ions and calcium Gets

• Dyeing: It is used as a bonding agent between colors and fibers.

• Food industry: As pH regulator and preservative.

• Electrolysis: As an electrolyte, it increases the rate of water decomposition.

Taxidermy: The process of removing meat from bones is used.

• Chemistry labs are used as the primary standard in titration reactions.

• Toothpaste: As a pH-enhancing agent, the flooring agent is used.

• Brick Making: As a wetting agent in the production of dough,
it reduces the amount of water used.

• Textile Industry: Used as an anti-acid agent in silk processing.

Petrochemicals and Crude Petroleum Refining: It is used as neutralizing in petrochemical processes.

• Purification of vegetable oils: acts as a free fatty acid separator.

• Smoke from smoke: In the process of sulfur removal, smoke from the flue is used.

Raw materials required for the production of sodium carbonate

The raw materials required to produce sodium carbonate by Solvay are limestone,
Normal salts and ammonia produced by the reaction of sodium carbonate below.

CaCO3 → CO2 + CaO

2NH3 + CO2 + H2O → (NH4) 2CO3

(NH4) 2CO3 + CO2 + H2O → 2NH4HCO3

NH4HCO3 + NaCl → NaHCO3 + NH4Cl

2NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O

Classification of chemicals
Classification of chemicals

Classification of chemicals

Classification of chemicals: Dangerous goods are classified and labeled
in many countries according to the United Nations system.
In this system, hazardous goods are categorized according to their hazardous properties in six classes.
These classes include nine distinct classes and a different class of materials.
The risks for each class are marked with special rhomboidal labels.
Some hazardous goods, including classes 8, 4, 1, 2 and 9, have sub-classes.
Which indicates a certain aspect of the dangers of the substance.
In some classes, subsequent categorization includes packaging groups
, which indicates the relative risk of matter inside a class
(PG-III low risk, PG-II medium risk, high-risk PGI)
Therefore, all packages, containers, and tankers carrying hazardous goods should
be labeled appropriately with the appropriate class name.
This label shows the nature of the risk using a color system and special characters,
as well as a hazard class item.

Class 1 Explosive

class 1

Includes substances that can cause explosions or pyrotechnic effects.
Production of explosives is generally limited and is subject to the relevant regulations.
The use of explosives for research needs is subject to obtaining the necessary permissions from the responsible organizations.

Explosives include 6 sub-classes:

Class 1-1 Explosives with a sudden and fearful explosion
Example: TNT Nitroglycerin, Mercury Fulminate

Class 1-2 Explosives with Risk of Throw (but not the danger of a blast of fearsome)
Example: bombs, grenades

Class 1-3 Explosive materials with a high fire hazard
Example: gunpowder, fireworks

Class 1-4 Explosives without fearsome explosion
Example: Fireworks on Toys

Classes 1-5 Explosive explosives with low explosive sensitivity
Depower like Proprietary Example: Explosive

Class 1-6 Explosive materials with very low explosive sensitivity

Class 2 gases

class 2

The hazardous goods of this class include pressure gases, liquid gases or pressure gases.

Gases include 3 sub-classes:

Class 2-1 flammable gases

Class 2-2 Non-flammable and non-toxic gases

Class 2-3 toxic gases

Toxic gases are gases that inhale them to cause death or serious health damage to humans.

Example: chlorine and ammonia.

Class 3 flammable liquids
class 3

For liquids flammable, a mixture of liquids or liquids containing solids is soluble or suspended.

Which can ignite in contact with a source of ignition, such as gasoline, thinners, paints, varnishes and flammable solvents?

It should be noted that in the older segmentation of this class, two sub-scales were divided into two sub-classes: 0-2 and 0-1.

But the new classification for subclass flammable liquids has not been taken into
consideration, but for these materials, the packaging groups (PG I, II, III) have been

PGI grade 3 – Highly flammable liquid
With an initial boiling point less than 08 ° C

Example: Di-ethyl ether, carbon disulfide

Class PG-II -3 Flammable Liquids Extremely high
With an initial boiling point greater than 08 ° C and a flash point less than
10 ° C

Like: gasoline, acetone

Class PIROGI -3 flammable liquid with flash point 10 to 92 ° C

Example: Crown, Turpentine Mineral

This group was called “subclass 2-3” in the previous division

Class 4 flammable solids

class 4

Hazardous materials in this class include materials with spontaneous combustion
potential as well as materials that can cause flammable gases in contact with water.
Also, solids (other than explosives) that immediately burn or cause fire are also classified in this class.

This class contains 3 sub-classes:

Class 4-1 flammable liquid

Materials that are easily ignited and combustible.
Example: Nitrocellulose, phosphorus, matches, and Acid Pic

Class 4-2 cylinders with spontaneous combustion potential
Example: Charcoal, cotton and white phosphorus

Class 4 – Dangerous substances in the wet state
Includes solids that create flammable gases in contact with water.
Example: aluminum phosphide and calcium carbide

Class 5 oxidizing substances

class 5

The oxidizing agent contains 2 sub-classes:

Class 5-1 Oxidizing agents (other than organic peroxides)

Like hydrogen peroxide, calcium hypochlorite (used in pools), ammonium nitrate and nitrates

Class 5-2 Organic peroxides (solid or liquid)

Examples: Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide, Benzoyl Peroxide, Di benzoyl, and Per
Acetic Acid.
Oxidizing substances are not necessarily combustible by themselves but may cause other materials to ignite.
For example, sodium peroxide in the presence of water creates a strongly exothermic reaction,
and the need for mixing with charcoal also causes spontaneous combustion.
Organic peroxides have a structure with bivalent oxygen.

These materials are thermal insecure materials and therefore may spontaneously
decompose, which can sometimes cause explosive reactions or burn quickly,
or be sensitive to impact or friction, or produce dangerous reactions with other materials

Class 6 Toxic and Infectious Substances

class 6


This class includes two sub-classes of toxic substances and infectious substances,
but toxic gases, previously classified in class 3-2, are not included in this class.

Class 6-1: Toxic substances (including liquids and toxic solids)

Toxic substances include substances that cause death or serious injury
and serious harm to humans if swallowed, inhaled or through skin contact.

Example: Sodium Cyanide (NaCN) Cyanides and Arsenic Compounds.

Class 6-2 Infectious agents

Substances are substances that are known to be infectious or possibly
pathogenic (microorganisms include bacteria, viruses, rickettsia, parasites, and fungi).
Vaccines and pathological specimens are examples of this.
The maintenance instructions, how to work and how to dispose of infectious
substances should be in accordance with the health regulations and the
mode of transportation of this group of materials subject to the provisions
of environmental protection

Class 7 radioactive substances

This class contains materials or materials that constantly emit radioactive contaminants.
More precisely, the radioactive substance is a substance with a specific activity greater than 70 KB q / kg.
The activity is specific to activity in a unit mass of a radioactive substance.
There are no sub-classes for this class, but different packing groups are considered.
Example: Radioisotopes and uranium

Class 8 corrosives

class 8
Corrosive materials are solid or liquid substances that can damage the living tissues
and equipment during contact with chemical agents.

In other words, corrosive substances are substances that, by chemical action,
cause severe damage to living tissues, equipment, and other materials.

Examples: Hydrofluoric Acid,


, and Clay Pools.

Class 9 Miscellaneous materials

class 9
This class shows the risk of miscellaneous materials that are not particularly severe
and are not classified in other classes.

Such as intense magnetic materials, aerosols, ammonium nitrate fertilizers,
and polyester granules.

Dangerous goods labels

This label represents various classes of hazardous goods and is used when
shipping these goods.

Why caustic soda?
Why caustic soda?

Why caustic soda?

Why caustic soda? Sodium hydroxide as a highly reactive alkali is widely used in various industries.

Caustic soda has a faster and stronger reactivity than other alkali materials.

This material does not produce adverse effects such as carbon dioxide or other carbonates during chemical processes.

Caustic soda can be used for pulp and paper industry, aluminum production,

Ink-removing waste paper, water purification and disinfectants.

Caustic soda is the primary substance in the production of many chemicals.

This substance is used as an intermediate and reactive process in which
many materials are made up of solvents, plastics, synthetic fibers,
bleaching agents, adhesives, coatings, inks, paints,
herbicides and pharmaceuticals such as aspirin.

Caustic soda is also used for the soap and construction of detergents, oil and gas industries,

The ceramic industry is used to neutralize acidic wastewater and to clean and
remove acidic compounds from exhaust gases.

so, this chemical is one of the most used chemicals in the industry.

Usages of sodium hydroxide

Chemical production:

In the chemical industry, about 40% of the produced caustic soda is used as a
base material for the production of many chemicals.

Detergent and disinfectant products:

Caustic soda is used for the production of soap and detergents with various
household and industrial applications.
Chlorine bleaching solutions (bleaching agents containing chlorine such as sodium
hypochlorite) are obtained from the combination of chlorine and caustic soda.
Tubes that contain caustic soda,
By converting fats and oil materials that have the potential for blockage of pipes
and water and sewage routes,
Water soluble materials prevent blockage of the pipes.

Medical and Pharmaceutical:

Caustic soda in the production of many pharmaceutical and medical substances
from simple painkillers, such as aspirin, to anticoagulants that can prevent blood coagulation and
It is used in steroidal anti-arrhythmic drugs.

pulp and paper production:

Sulfate and sulfite pulp produced by purification of lignin compounds using
multiple units extracted by liquid caustic soda are purified.
Also, in some factories that use the craft process to produce paper,
Liquid sodium hydroxide is used.
In addition to the usages of caustic soda, in the paper industry,
this chemical isThe Initial removal of ink from recycled paper.

cellophane and silk:

The production of fibers using the viscose process requires two main steps needs caustic soda.
Cellulose is used to enhance the strength and shine, resulting in the production
of alkaline cellulose by the liquor of treated liquid,
The resulting cellulose is then dissolved in the diluted liquid extract to produce
viscose material used to extrude silk fibers and cellophane films.

Aluminum extraction:

The use of caustic soda in the aluminum industry is used to dissolve bauxite ore,
which is the primary material for the production of aluminum,
and the deposition of aluminum?
Caustic soda is also used for chemical brushes of aluminum products.

Soap making:

The caustic soda converts fats into water-soluble soaps.
the cloth:
In this industry, caustic soda is used to clean, whiten and enhance the shine
and toughness of the cloth.

Oil production and refining industry:

Caustic Soda as a carbon dioxide absorber in lightweight cuts
As sulfide adsorbent, it is used to purify various oil cuts.
Also, caustic soda along with chlorine for the hypochlorite
sweetening process that is a process for
The removal of various sulfur compounds is applicable.

Sodium carbonate substitute (soda ash):

Caustic soda is used as an alternative to its hydrate in many applications in the glass
paper, pulp, phosphate and silicate industries.

Food Production:

Sodium hydroxide is used in the production and processing of several nutrients.
Such as the use of caustic soda in the processing of olive or in the process of producing woody salty to create brittle.
The fruit is used to separate the peel of potatoes, tomatoes and other fruits for canning.
Also, caustic soda is used to prevent the growth of bacteria and mildew in certain foods and to prevent their corrosion.

Water and Sewage Treatment:

In water and wastewater treatment plants, water utilization is used to control
the acidity of water and help remove heavy metals from water.
Also, the caustic soda is in the production of sodium hypochlorite (bleach),
which is an antiseptic.


The use of caustic soda is used in the production of fuel cells.
In the manufacture of epoxy resins, which are used in wind turbines,
Caustic soda is used.

Nonrenewable fuels:

Caustic soda is used to adjust the pH and produce sodium methyl’s in the
bio-ethanol and biodiesel production process.