Chemical solvents

Chemical solvents

Chemical solvents

Chemical solvents are substances that dissolve other materials. Chemical solvents are generally divided into two groups of polar
solvents and nonpolar solvents.
In a polar solvent, the particles form a polar solvent and absorb each other by electrostatic gravity
The most important polar solvent is water. Types of acids such as sulfuric acid H2SO4 and hydrogen fluoride HF are also included in this category. In non-polar solvents,non-polar solvents are present, and therefore there is only a weak gravitational force between particles, which is why these solvents often have a very low boiling point and are volatile.
Organic solvents have less polarization than non-organic solvents or mineral solvents, and as a result, these solvents, soluble non-polar

.materials better

Types of chemical solvents

ethanol

Most used in scientific experiments.
Uses:
Due to its solubility in water and ether, it can be used in natural resins such as cholate, PVA, polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl butyric, resin esters,
ketone resins, As solvent, anti-freeze germicide, fuel, a dull substance in the petrochemical industry, pharmacy.

Water


The water molecule (HOH) has both a hydrogen atom and an OH-factor. So it is both Alkaline and acid, and hence chemically. Pure water or distilled water dissolves acids, alkalis, metal salts, herbal gums, strong serum adhesives, plastic dyes, and alcohols.

chloroform



Chloroform is one of the best solvents of alkaloids in their base form.
Uses:
Extracting antibiotics, vitamins, and flavors, Reagent or laboratory detector to detect early amines,  bromides
In decomposition chemistry for the separation of compounds to keep organic tissues in the lab.
Acetone (Propane)
Acetone is used as the solvent for many organic compounds. In the production of plastics, synthetic fibers, pharmaceuticals, and other chemical compounds. Indigo colors are also used in industrial production.

 

Phosphoric acid


Production of phosphate fertilizers such as oxoammonium phosphate, ammonium phosphate, triple superphosphate
, magnesium phosphate and …The production of phosphates is used in detergents such as trisodium phosphate and sodium tripolyphosphate.

Production of industrial phosphate cleaners:
In the production of acid detergents

Production of purifying and coagulating materials in the water and wastewater industry.

In the form of edible grains, consumption in the food industry:
in the production of acidic foods and carbonated beverages, such as the types of cola

Ethylene glycol

 

Mono ethylene glycol is used in the plastic industry, In the production of resins and polymer fibers
In the production of polyester fibers, bottles of beverages and packaging films
In the global production of this product, it produces polyesters of polyethylene terephthalate

Hydrofluoric acid


For engraving on a glass in a lamp
Synthesis of ammonium fluoride from ammonia and hydrogen fluoride reactions
In the manufacture of decorative crystals and matte glassware
The steel industry, ceramics,
casting, furnace and alloys and so on …
The production of uranium and more than one hundred fluorinated chemicals

Xylene

Xylene is one of the important solvents that are the main components of crude oil.
Uses:
In the adhesive industry to reduce the viscosity
In the production of waterproof coatings and pipeline lines
Washing of transport equipment includes cleaning of trucks, railway rails, multipurpose containers of aircraft tanks, old dishes.

Other chemical solvents

Dimethyl sulfoxide

DMSO is a sulfur compound that is a natural and anti-inflammatory agent.
Dimethyl sulfoxide is used to treat amyloidosis and palmar and leg syndrome.

Dimethylformamide



The main application of DMF is its use as a solvent with a low evaporation rate in various industries.
Other uses:
For example, in the production of acrylic and plastic fibers In the manufacturing industry of the label, synthetic leather, fibers, films, and surface coatings are Suitable catalysts for halide acid production.

 

Ethyl acetate


The main uses of ethyl acetate in the manufacture of nitrocellulose and cellulose acetate, lacquer, and as a solvent component in glue and in the expansion compositions for artificial leather.

 

Lacquers

In caffeine extraction from coffee and tea, in the food industry (sweets) as essential oils
In perfumery as a solvent

Pentane

Pentane is one of the most volatile hydrocarbons at room temperature. Pentane is often used as a solvent that is easily evaporated. Since pentane is non-polar, only non-polar materials are dissolved in it.
Pentane is also one of the common fuel components. Pentane is used as a foaming agent in foam polystyrene production. Pentane is used in geothermal force units.

Methanol


Uses:
Solvent, anti-icing agent, and in the preparation of other chemical compounds
Limited as a fuel in engines with an internal combustion system

Propanol


Uses:
The solvent in the pharmaceutical industry,
for resins and cellulose esters and in the fermentation process
In the printing industry
As an antiseptic for cleaning the skin before surgery

 

Butanol


Of normal butanol to produce butylated acetate, butyl acrylate, DE butyl phthalate, butyl ethers, etc.

Production of polymers, pharmaceuticals, herbicide esters, and so on…

Additives in perfumes and auctions in the extraction of certain oils

Heptane


Heptane and its isomers are widely used in solvents for laboratories.
In the test of the spot test, heptane is used to dissolve the oily specimen to show the number of organic compounds present in it.

Extraction from heptane means the identification of bromine solutions from iodine.
Heptane is commercially available for rubber and fuel glue.

Octanol

Converting octanol to ester form, this substance is used as a perfume.
The molecular dispersion of octanol/water, used in environmental chemistry and pharmacy chemistry to estimate the behavior of a substance, indicates that octanol is a natural substance

Tetrahydrofuran


The primary use of this polymer is for the manufacture of SanDisk polyurethane fibers such as spandex.
As its main use solvent, it is used as an industrial solvent for PVC and in polishers.

An aprotic solvent with a dielectric constant of 7.6, which is a polar solvent and can solve a lot of polar and nonpolar compositions, is water-immiscible and can be clathrate structures
Form clathrate hydrate with water at low temperature.

Sulfolane

Sulfate is used to extract aromatic compounds.

Toluene


Toluene (Methylbenzene or Phenyl methane) is a liquid that is insoluble in water with a similar odor to conventional odor thinners.
Toluene is a group of aromatic compounds and is used as an essential ingredient as well as a chemical solvent.

Other uses include a color solvent, paint thinner,
silicone sealant, chemical reactive agent, plastic, printing ink, glue, varnish, disinfectant, and disinfectant. It can also be used to make foam and TNT.

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